A Prescription for THz Transistor Characterization

An on-wafer measurement tutorial narrated in Power-Point with embedded references.

**Topics**

- Circuit Theory
- On-Wafer Measurement and Calibration
- Calibration Accuracy and Verification
- Planar Transmission Line Characterization
- Multiconductor Transmission Lines
- Electronic Packaging Characterization
- Electronic Materials Characterization
- High-speed Electrical and Electrooptic Measurements
- On-Wafer Calibration Software (implements methods described in these publications)

- J. Verspecht, D.F. Williams, D. Schreurs, K.A. Remley, and M.D. McKinley, "Linearization of large-signal scattering functions,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech*., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1369-1376, April, 2005. - D.F. Williams, F. Ndagijimana, K.A. Remley, J. Dunsmore, and S. Hubert, "Scattering-parameter models and representations for microwave mixers,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech*., vol. 53, no. 1. pp. 314-321, Jan. 2005. - K. A. Remley, D. F. Williams, D. F. Schreurs, and J. Wood, "Simplifying and interpreting two-tone measurements," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 2576-2584, Nov. 2004.
- D. F. Williams, B.K. Alpert, U. Arz, D.K. Walker, and H. Grabinski, "Causal characteristic impedance of planar transmission lines,"
*IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging*, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 165-171, May, 2003. - D. F. Williams and B.K. Alpert, "Causality and waveguide circuit theory,"
*IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 615-623, April 2001. - D. F. Williams, B.K. Alpert, U. Arz, and H. Grabinski, "Causal characteristic impedance of planar transmission lines," submitted to
*IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*. - D.F. Williams and R.C. Wittmann, "Computation of causal characteristic impedances,"
*2000 International Microwave Symposium Digest*, pp. 1813-1816, June 11-16, 2000. - D.F. Williams and B.K. Alpert, "Causality and characteristic impedance,"
*54*, Dec. 1-2, 1999.^{th}ARFTG Conference Digest - D.F. Williams and B.K. Alpert, "Characteristic impedance of microstrip on silicon,"
*8*, pp. 181-184, Oct. 25-27, 1999.^{th}Topical Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging - D.F. Williams and B.K. Alpert, "A causal microwave circuit theory and its implications,"
*1999 URSI General Assembly*, Toronto, Canada, August 13-21, 1999. - D.F. Williams and B.K. Alpert, "Characteristic impedance, causality, and microwave circuit theory,"
*IEEE Workshop on Signal Propagation on Interconnects*, Titisee-Neustadt, Germany, May 19-21, 1999. - D. F. Williams and B.K. Alpert, "Characteristic impedance, power, and causality,"
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Lett.*, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 181-182, May 1999. - D. F. Williams, L. A. Hayden, and R. B. Marks, "A Complete Multimode Equivalent-Circuit Theory for Electrical Design,"
*NIST Journal of Research*, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 405-423, July-Aug. 1997. - D. F. Williams and F. Olyslager, "Modal Cross Power in Quasi-TEM Transmission Lines",
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 413-415, November 1996. - D. F. Williams, "Thermal Noise in Lossy Waveguides,"
*IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 44, no. 7, July 1996. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Comments on 'Conversions Between
*S*,*Z*,*Y*,*h*,*ABCD*, and*T*Parameters which are Valid for Complex Source and Load Impedances,"*IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 914-915, April 1995. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Reciprocity Relations in Waveguide Junctions,"
*IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 1105-1110, July 1993. - D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, D. K. Walker, and F. R. Clague, "Wafer Probe Transducer Efficiency,"
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 388-390, Oct. 1992. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "A General Waveguide Circuit Theory,"
*Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology*, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 533-562, Sep.-Oct. 1992. (*Best paper award, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory*) - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Reciprocity relations for on-wafer power measurement,"
*38th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 82-89, Dec. 1991. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "The Interpretation and Use of S-Parameters in Lossy Lines,"
*36th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 84-90, Nov. 1990. (*Best Paper Award*)

**On-Wafer Measurement and Calibration**

- D.F. Williams, P. Corson, J. Sharma, H. Krishnaswamy, W. Tai, Z. George, D. Ricketts, P. Watson, E. Dacquay, and S. Voinigescu, "Calibration-kit design for millimeter-wave silicon integrated circuits," submitted to IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech.
- D.F. Williams, A.C. Young, and M. Urteaga, "A prescription for sub-millimeter-wave transistor characterization," submitted to IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. and Technol.
- F.J. Schmuckle, R. Doerner, G.N. Phung, W.A. Heinrich, D.F. Williams, U. Arz, "Radiation, multimode propagation, and substrate modes in W-band CPW calibration," 41st European Microwave Conference, pp. 297-300, Oct. 2011. (Winner European Microwave Prize)
- D.F. Williams, C.M. Wang, and U. Arz, "An optimal vector-network-analyzer calibration algorithm,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech*., vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 2391-2401, Dec. 2003. - D.F. Williams, C.M. Wang, and U. Arz, "An optimal multiline TRL calibration algorithm,"
*2003 Int. Microwave Symp. Dig*., pp. 1819-1822, June 10-12, 2003. - U. Arz and D.F. Williams, "Applications of calibration comparison in on-wafer measurement,"
*URSI-GA 2002*, Aug. 17-24, 2002. - U. Arz, D.F. Williams, and H. Grabinski, "Characteristic impedance measurement of planar transmission lines,"
*URSI-GA 2002*, Aug. 17-24, 2002. - U. Arz, H.C. Reader, P. Kabos, D.F. Williams, "Wideband Frequency-Domain Characterization of High-Impedance Probes,"
*58th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 117-124, Nov. 29-30, 2001. - D.F. Williams, U. Arz, H. Grabinski, "Characteristic-Impedance Measurement Error on Lossy Substrates,"
*IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters*, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 299-301, July 2001. - 10.D.K. Walker, R.F. Kaiser, D.F. Williams, and K.J. Coakley, "Lumped-Element Models for On-Wafer Calibration,"56th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 89-92, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 2000.
- D.F. Williams, A.C. Byers, V.C. Tyree, D.K. Walker, J.J. Ou, X. Jin, M. Piket-May, and C. Hu, "Contact-pad design for high-frequency silicon measurements,"
*9*, pp. 131-134, Oct. 23-25, 2000.^{th}Topical Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging - W. Waitr, D.K. Walker, and D.F. Williams, "Coplanar-waveguide-to-microstrip transition model,"
*2000 International Microwave Symposium Digest*, June 11-16, 2000. - D. F. Williams and D. K. Walker, "Lumped-element impedance standards,"
*51*, pp. 91-93, June 12, 1998.^{st}ARFTG Conference Digest - D. K. Walker and D. F. Williams, "Comparison of SOLR and TRL calibrations,"
*51*, pp. 83-87, June 12, 1998.^{st}ARFTG Conference Digest - D. F. Williams and D. Walker, "Series-Resistor Calibration,"
*50*, pp. 131-137, Dec. 4-5, 1997.^{th}ARFTG Conference Digest - D. Walker and D.F. Williams, "Compensation for Geometrical Variations in Coplanar Waveguide Probe-tip Calibration,"
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 97-99, April 1997. - D.C. DeGroot, D.K. Walker, and R.B. Marks, "Impedance mismatch effects on propagation constant measurements,"
*5th EPEP Conference*, pp. 141-143, Oct. 28-30, 1996. - D. F. Williams, J. M. Belquin, G. Dambrine, and R. Fenton, "On-Wafer Measurement at Millimeter Wave Frequencies",
*1996 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest*, vol. 3, pp. 1683-1686, June 17-21, 1996. - D. F. Williams and J. B. Schappacher, "Line-Reflect-Match Calibrations with Nonideal Microstrip Standards,"
*46th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 35-38, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 1995. - J. A. Jargon, R. B. Marks, and D. F. Williams, "Coaxial Line-Reflect-Match Calibration,"
*Proc. of the Asia-Pacific Microwave Conf.*, Oct. 1995. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "LRM Probe-Tip Calibrations using Nonideal Standards,"
*IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 466-469, Feb. 1995. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Compensation for Substrate Permittivity in Probe-Tip Calibration,"
*44th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 20-30, Dec. 1994. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "On-Wafer Impedance Measurement on Lossy Substrates,"
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 175-176, June 1994. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "LRM Probe-Tip Calibrations with Imperfect Resistors and Lossy Lines,"
*42nd ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 32-36, Dec. 1993. (*Best Paper Award*) - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Calibrating On-Wafer Probes to the Probe Tips,"
*40th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 136-143, Dec. 1992. - D. K. Walker, D. F. Williams, and J. M. Morgan, "Planar Resistors for Probe Station Calibration,"
*40th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 1-9, Dec. 1992. - D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, D. K. Walker, and F. R. Clague, "Wafer Probe Transducer Efficiency,"
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 388-390, Oct. 1992. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "A General Waveguide Circuit Theory,"
*Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology*, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 533-562, Sep.-Oct. 1992. (*Best paper award, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory*) - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Traceability for on-wafer MMIC measurements,"
*Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements*, pp. 371-372, June 1992. - D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, and A. Davidson, "Comparison of On-Wafer Calibrations,"
*38th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 68-81, Dec. 1991. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Reciprocity relations for on-wafer power measurement,"
*38th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 82-89, Dec. 1991. - R. Furlow, R. Y. Shimoda, D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, and K. C. Gupta, "Benchmark for the Verification of Microwave CAD Software,"
*38th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 97-106, Dec. 1991. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Transmission Line Capacitance Measurement,"
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 243-245, Sept. 1991. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Characteristic Impedance Determination using Propagation Constant Measurement,"
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 141-143, June 1991. - T. H. Miers, A. Cangellaris, D. Williams, and R. Marks, "Anomalies Observed in Wafer Level Microwave Testing,"
*1991 International Microwave Symposium Digest*, pp. 1121-1124, June 1991. - D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, and K. R. Phillips, "Translate LRL and LRM calibrations,"
*Microwaves and RF*, vo. 30, pp. 78-84, Feb. 1991. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "The Interpretation and Use of S-Parameters in Lossy Lines,"
*36th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 84-90, Nov. 1990. (*Best Paper Award*) - D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, K. Phillips, and T. Miers "Progress toward MMIC on-wafer standards,"
*36th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 73-83, Nov. 1990. - K. Phillips and D. Williams, "MMIC Package Characterization with Active Loads,"
*36th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 64-72, Nov. 1990. - D. F. Williams, "De-embedding and unterminating microwave fixtures with nonlinear least squares,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 787-791, June 1990. - D. F. Williams and T. H. Miers, "De-embedding Coplanar Probes with Planar Distributed Standards,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques*36, pp. 1876-1880, Dec. 1988. - D. F. Williams and T. H. Miers, "A Coplanar Probe to Microstrip Transition,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques*36, pp. 1219-1223, July 1988.

**Calibration Accuracy and Verification**

- D.F. Williams, A.C. Young, and M. Urteaga, "A prescription for sub-millimeter-wave transistor characterization," submitted to IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. and Technol.
- D.F. Williams, "Comparison of sub-millimeter-wave scattering-parameter calibrations with imperfect electrical ports," IEEE Trans. Terahertz Science and Technol., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 144-152, Jan. 2012.
- D.F. Williams, K.A. Remley, J.M. Gering, G.S. Lyons, C. Lineberry, G.S. Aivazian, "Comparison of large-signal-network-analyzer calibrations,"
*IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters*, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 118-120, Feb. 2010. - K.A. Remley, D.F. Williams, D. Schreurs, M. Myslinski, "Measurement bandwidth extension using multisine signals: Propagation of error,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech*., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 458-467, Feb. 2010. - D.F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, D. LeGolvan and R. Ginley, "Electronic vector-network-analyzer verification,"
*IEEE Microwave Magazine,*pp. 118-123, Oct. 2009. - Hale, P.D., Williams, D.F., Dienstfrey, A., Wang, J., Jargon, J., Humphreys, D., Harper, M., Fuser, H., Bieler, M., "Traceability of high-speed electrical waveforms at NIST, NPL, and PTB," Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, pp. 522-523, 2012.
- Jargon, J.A., Williams, D.F., Wallis, T.M., LeGolvan, D.X., Hale, P.D., "Establishing traceability of an electronic calibration unit using the NIST Microwave Uncertainty Framework," 2012 79th ARFTG Microwave Measurements Conference, pp. 1-5, June 2012.
- D.F. Williams, "Rectangular-waveguide vector-network-analyzer calibrations with imperfect test ports,"
*76th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Symposium*, pp. 1-8, Dec. 2010. (winner Best Paper Award) - A. Lewandowski, W. Waitr, D. Williams, "Multi-frequency approach to vector-network-analyzer scattering-parameter measurements,"
*2010 European Microwave Conference*, pp. 260-263, 28-30 Sept. 2010. - D.F. Williams, "500 GHz - 750 GHz rectangular-waveguide vector-network-analyzer calibrations," IEEE Trans. Terahertz Science and Technol., 2011.
- A. Lewandowski, D.F. Williams, P.D. Hale, C. M. Wang, and A. Dienstfrey, "Covariance-Based Vector-Network-Analyzer Uncertainty Analysis for Time- and Frequency-Domain Measurements," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 1877-1886, July 2010.
- D.F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, D. LeGolvan, R. Ginley, C.M. Wang and J. Splett, "Use of Electronic Calibration Units for Vector-Network-Analyzer Verification," 74th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference, Boulder, Colorado, Dec. 1-4, 2009.
- A. Lewandowski and D.F. Williams, "Stochastic modeling of coaxial-connector repeatability errors," 74th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference, Boulder, Colorado, Dec. 1-4, 2009.
- D.F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, D. LeGolvan and R. Ginley, "Electronic vector-network-analyzer verification,"
*IEEE Microwave Magazine*, pp. 118-123, Oct. 2009. - C.M. Wang, P.D. Hale and D.F. Williams, "Uncertainty of timebase corrections," IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., vol. 58, no. 10, pp 3468-3472, Oct. 2009.
- A. Lewandowski and D.F. Williams, "Characterization and modeling of random vector network analyzer measurement errors,"
*17th International Conf. on Microwaves, Radar and Wireless Communications*, 19-21 May, 2008. - P. D. Hale, C. M. Wang, D. F. Williams, K. A. Remley, and J. Wepman, "Compensation of random and systematic timing errors in sampling oscilloscopes,"
*IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.,*vol. 55, no. 6. pp. 2146-2154, Dec. 2006. - D. F. Williams, H. Khenissi, F. Ndagijimana, K. A. Remley, J. P. Dunsmore, P. D. Hale, C. M. Wang, and T. S. Clement, "Sampling-Oscilloscope Measurement of a Microwave Mixer with Single-Digit Phase Accuracy,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.*vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 1210-1217, March 2006. - D. F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, T. S. Clement, C. M. Wang, P. D. Hale, J. M. Morgan, D. Keenan, and A. Dienstfrey, "Covariance-Based Uncertainty Analysis of the NIST Electrooptic Sampling System,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.*, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 481-491, Jan. 2006. - D.F. Williams, C.M. Wang, and U. Arz, "An optimal vector-network-analyzer calibration algorithm,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech*., vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 2391-2401, Dec. 2003. - D.F. Williams, C.M. Wang, and U. Arz, "An optimal multiline TRL calibration algorithm,"
*2003 Int. Microwave Symp. Dig*., pp. 1819-1822, June 10-12, 2003. - K.A. Remley, D.F. Williams, Dominique Schreurs, Giovanni Loglio, and Alessandro Cidronali, "Phase detrending for measured multisine signals,"
*61st ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference Digest*, pp. 73-83, June 13, 2003. (ARFTG best paper award) - U. Arz and D.F. Williams, "Applications of calibration comparison in on-wafer measurement,"
*URSI-GA 2002*, Aug. 17-24, 2002. - U. Arz, H.C. Reader, P. Kabos, D.F. Williams, "Wideband Frequency-Domain Characterization of High-Impedance Probes,"
*58th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 117-124, Nov. 29-30, 2001. - D.F. Williams, U. Arz, H. Grabinski, "Characteristic-Impedance Measurement Error on Lossy Substrates,"
*IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters*, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 299-301, July 2001. - D. F. Williams and K.A. Remley, "Analytic sampling-circuit model,"
*IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1013-1019, June 2001. - K.A. Remley, D. F. Williams, D.C. DeGroot, J. Verspecht, and J. Kerley, "Effects of nonlinear diode junction capacitance on the nose-to-nose calibration,"
*IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters*, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 196-198, May 2001. - D.K. Walker, R.F. Kaiser, D.F. Williams, and K.J. Coakley, "Lumped-element models for high-frequency calibration,"
*56th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 89-92, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 2000. - K.A. Remley, D.F. Williams, and D.C. DeGroot, "Realistic sampling-circuit model for a nose-to-nose simulation,"
*2000 International Microwave Symposium Digest*, pp. 1473-1476, June 11-16, 2000. - D.F. Williams, K.A. Remley, and D.C. DeGroot, "Nose-to-Nose Response of a 20-GHz Sampling Circuit,"
*54*, Dec. 1-2, 1999.^{th}ARFTG Conference Digest - R.F. Kaiser and D.F. Williams, "Sources of Error in Coplanar-Waveguide TRL Calibrations,"
*54*, Dec. 1-2, 1999.^{th}ARFTG Conference Digest - D.F. Williams and D.K. Walker, "0.1-10 GHz CMOS Voltage Standard,"
*IEEE Workshop on Signal Propagation on Interconnects*, Titisee-Neustadt, Germany, May 19-21, 1999. - D. F. Williams, "High frequency limitations of the JEDEC 123 guideline,"
*7*, pp. 54-57, Oct. 26-28, 1998.^{th}Topical Meeting on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging - D. F. Williams and D. K. Walker, "Lumped-element impedance standards,"
*51*, pp. 91-93, June 12,^{st}ARFTG Conference Digest

1998. - D. K. Walker and D. F. Williams, "Comparison of SOLR and TRL calibrations,"
*51*, pp. 83-87, June 12, 1998.^{st}ARFTG Conference Digest - R. B. Marks, J. A. Jargon, and D. K. Rytting, "Accuracy of Lumped-Element Calibrations for Four-Sampler Vector Network Analyzers,"
*1998 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest*, pp. 1487-1490, June 9-11, 1998. - D. F. Williams, U. Arz, and H. Grabinski "Accurate Characteristic Impedance Measurement on Silicon,"
*1998 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest*, pp. 1917-1920, June 9-11, 1998. - D. C. DeGroot, R. B. Marks, and J. A. Jargon, "A Method for Comparing Vector Network Analyzers,"
*50th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 107-114, Portland, OR, Dec. 1997. - D. Walker and D.F. Williams, "Compensation for Geometrical Variations in Coplanar Waveguide Probe-tip Calibration,"
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 97-99, April 1997. - R. B. Marks, J. A. Jargon, and J. R. Juroshek, "Calibration Comparison Method for Vector Network Analyzers,"
*48th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 38-45, Clearwater, FL, Dec. 1996. - D.C. DeGroot, D.K. Walker, and R.B. Marks, "Impedance mismatch effects on propagation constant measurements,"
*5th EPEP Conference*, pp. 141-143, Oct. 28-30, 1996. - D. F. Williams, J. M. Belquin, G. Dambrine, and R. Fenton, "On-Wafer Measurement at Millimeter Wave Frequencies",
*1996 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest*, vol. 3, pp. 1683-1686, June 17-21, 1996. - D. F. Williams and J. B. Schappacher, "Line-Reflect-Match Calibrations with Nonideal Microstrip Standards,"
*46th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 35-38, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 1995. - J. A. Jargon and R. B. Marks, "Two-Tier Multiline TRL for Calibration of Low-Cost Network Analyzers,"
*46th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 1-8, Scottsdale, AZ, Nov.-Dec. 1995. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "LRM Probe-Tip Calibrations using Nonideal Standards,"
*IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 466-469, Feb. 1995. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Compensation for Substrate Permittivity in Probe-Tip Calibration,"
*44th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 20-30, Dec. 1994. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "On-Wafer Impedance Measurement on Lossy Substrates,"
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 175-176, June 1994. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Verification of Commercial Probe-Tip Calibrations,"
*42nd ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 37-44, Dec. 1993. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "LRM Probe-Tip Calibrations with Imperfect Resistors and Lossy Lines,"
*42nd ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 32-36, Dec. 1993. (*Best Paper Award*) - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Calibrating On-Wafer Probes to the Probe Tips,"
*40th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 136-143, Dec. 1992. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Verification of scattering parameter measurements,"
*Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements*, pp. 371-372, June 1992. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Traceability for on-wafer MMIC measurements,"
*Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements*, pp. 371-372, June 1992. - D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, and A. Davidson, "Comparison of On-Wafer Calibrations,"
*38th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 68-81, Dec. 1991. - R. Furlow, R. Y. Shimoda, D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, and K. C. Gupta, "Benchmark for the Verification of Microwave CAD Software,"
*38th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 97-106, Dec. 1991. - D. F. Williams, "De-embedding and unterminating microwave fixtures with nonlinear least squares,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 787-791, June 1990.

**Planar Transmission Line Characterization**

- D.F. Williams, U. Arz, H. Grabinski, "Characteristic-Impedance Measurement Error on Lossy Substrates,"
*IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters*, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 299-301, July 2001. - U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, H. Grabinski, "High-Frequency Behavior of Coupled CMOS Interconnects Built in Different Metallization Layers,"
*56th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 32-37, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 2000. - D.F. Williams and B.K. Alpert, "Characteristic impedance of microstrip on silicon,"
*8*^{th}Topical Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging. - H. Grabinski, U. Arz, D. F. Williams, "Accurate Experimental Characterization of On-Chip Interconnects,"
*1999 URSI General Assembly*, Toronto, Canada, August 13-21, 1999. - D. F. Williams, "Metal-insulator-semiconductor transmission lines,"
*IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 176-181, Feb. 1999. - D. F. Williams, "Metal-insulator-semiconductor transmission line model,"
*51*, pp. 65-71, June 12, 1998.^{st}ARFTG Conference Digest - D. F. Williams, U. Arz, and H. Grabinski "Accurate Characteristic Impedance Measurement on Silicon,"
*1998 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest*, pp. 1917-1920, June 9-11, 1998. - V. Milanovic, M. Ozgur, D. C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, M. Gaitan, and M. Zaghloul, "Characterization of Broad-Band Transmission for Coplanar Waveguides on CMOS Silicon Substrates,"
*IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 46, pp. 632-640, May 1998. - D. F. Williams, M. D. Janezic, A. Ralston, S. List, "Quasi-TEM model for coplanar waveguide on silicon,"
*1997 EPEP Conference Digest*, pp. 225-228, Oct. 27-29, 1997. - D. F. Williams, J.-M. Belquin, A. Spisser, A. Cappy, and D. Dambrine, "Characterization of coplanar waveguide on epitaxial layers,"
*Electronics Letters*, vol. 33, no. 17, pp. 1468-1469, Aug. 1997. - M. D. Janezic and D. F. Williams, "Permittivity Characterization from Transmission-Line Measurement,"
*IEEE International Microwave Symposium Digest*, vol. 3, pp. 1343-1345, June 10-12, 1997. - D.C. DeGroot, D.K. Walker, and R.B. Marks, "Impedance mismatch effects on propagation constant measurements,"
*5th EPEP Conference*, pp. 141-143, Oct. 28-30, 1996. - D. F. Williams, J. M. Belquin, G. Dambrine, and R. Fenton, "On-Wafer Measurement at Millimeter Wave Frequencies",
*1996 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest*, vol. 3, pp. 1683-1686, June 17-21, 1996. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Electrical characterization methods for high-speed interconnections,"
*International Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging*, vol. 18, pp. 207-216, 1995. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Accurate electrical characterization of high-speed interconnections," Proceedings, 1994 International Symposium on Microelectronics, pp. 96-101, Nov. 1994. (
*Best Paper of session Award*) - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "On-Wafer Impedance Measurement on Lossy Substrates,"
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 175-176, June 1994. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Microwave Characterization of Printed Circuit Transmission Lines,"
*NEPCON East*, pp. 520-527, June 1994. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Accurate Transmission Line Characterization,"
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 247-249, Aug. 1993. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Interconnection Transmission Line Parameter Characterization,"
*40th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 88-95, Dec. 1992. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Accurate Experimental Characterization of Interconnects: A Discussion of 'Experimental Electrical Characterization of Interconnects and Discontinuities in High-Speed Digital Systems',"
*IEEE Transactions on Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology*, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 601-602, Aug. 1992. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Comments on "Characterization of resistive transmission lines by short-pulse propagation","
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 346, Aug. 1992. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Frequency-Dependent Transmission Line Parameters,"
*IEEE Topical Meeting on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging*, pp. 125-127, Apr. 1992. - D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, and A. Davidson, "Comparison of On-Wafer Calibrations,"
*38th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 68-81, Dec. 1991. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Transmission Line Capacitance Measurement,"
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 243-245, Sept. 1991. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Characteristic Impedance Determination using Propagation Constant Measurement,"
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 141-143, June 1991.

**Multiconductor Transmission Lines**

- P. Kabos, U. Arz, and D.F. Williams, "Multiport investigation of the coupling of high-impedance probes,"
*IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters*, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 510-512, Nov. 2004. - D.K. Walker, D.F. Williams, A. Padilla, U. Arz, and H. Grabinski, "Four-Port Microwave Measurement System Speeds On-Wafer Calibration and Test,"
*Microwave Journal*, pp. 144-150, March 2001. - U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, H. Grabinski, "High-Frequency Behavior of Coupled CMOS Interconnects Built in Different Metallization Layers,"
*56th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 32-37, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 2000. - U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, and H. Grabinski, "Accurate electrical measurement of coupled lines on lossy silicon,"
*9*, pp. 181-184, Oct. 23-25, 2000.^{th}Topical Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging - U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, and H. Grabinski, "Asymmetric Coupled CMOS Lines-An Experimental Study,"
*IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 48, no. 12, Dec. 2000. - U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, J.E. Rogers, M. Rudack, D. Treytnar, and H. Grabinski, "Characterization of Asymmetric Coupled CMOS Lines,"
*2000 International Microwave Symposium Digest*, pp. 609-702, June 11-16, 2000. - D. F. Williams, J. E. Rogers, and C. L. Holloway, "Multiconductor transmission-line characterization: representations, approximations, and accuracy,"
*IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 403-409, April 1999. - D. F. Williams and D. K. Walker, "In-line multiport calibration,"
*51*, pp. 88-90, June 12, 1998.^{st}ARFTG Conference Digest - D. F. Williams, L. A. Hayden, and R. B. Marks, "A Complete Multimode Equivalent-Circuit Theory for Electrical Design,"
*NIST Journal of Research*, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 405-423, July-Aug. 1997. - D. F. Williams, "Embedded multiconductor transmission line characterization,"
*IEEE International Microwave Symposium Digest*, vol. 3, pp. 1773-1776, June 10-12, 1997. - D. F. Williams, "Multiconductor Transmission Line Characterization,"
*IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology-Part B*, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 129-132, May 1997. - D. F. Williams, "Calibration in Multiconductor Transmission Lines,"
*48th ARFTG Conference Digest*(Orlando, FL), pp. 46-53, Dec. 4-6, 1996. - D. F. Williams and F. Olyslager, "Modal Cross Power in Quasi-TEM Transmission Lines",
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 413-415, November 1996. - D. F. Williams, "Thermal Noise in Lossy Waveguides,"
*IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 44, no. 7, July 1996.

**Electronic Packaging Characterization**

- A. Louh, U. Arz, H. Grabinski, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, and A.Weisshaar, "Broadband impedance parameters of assymetric coupled CMOS interconnects: new closed-form expressions and comparison with measurements,"
*7th IEEE Workshop on Signal Propagation on Interconnects*., Siena, Italy, May 11-14, 2003. - U. Arz, P. Kabos, and D.F. Williams, "Measuring the invasiveness of high-impedance probes,"
*7th IEEE Workshop on Signal Propagation on Interconnects*., Siena, Italy, May 11-14, 2003. - P. Kabos, H.C. Reader, U. Arz, and D.F. Williams, "Calibrated waveform measurement with high-impedance probes,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech*., vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 530-535, February 2003. - M.D. Janezic, D.F. Williams, V. Blaschke, A. Karamcheti, and C.S. Chang, "Permittivity characterization of low-k thin films from transmission-line measurements,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech.*, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 132-136, January 2003. - D.F. Williams, U. Arz, H. Grabinski, "Characteristic-Impedance Measurement Error on Lossy Substrates,"
*IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters*, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 299-301, July 2001. - D.K. Walker, D.F. Williams, A. Padilla, U. Arz, and H. Grabinski, "Four-Port Microwave Measurement System Speeds On-Wafer Calibration and Test,"
*Microwave Journal*, pp. 144-150, March 2001. - U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, H. Grabinski, "High-Frequency Behavior of Coupled CMOS Interconnects Built in Different Metallization Layers,"
*56th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 32-37, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 2000. - D.F. Williams, A.C. Byers, V.C. Tyree, D.K. Walker, J.J. Ou, X. Jin, M. Piket-May, and C. Hu, "Contact-pad design for high-frequency silicon measurements,"
*9*, pp. 131-134, Oct. 23-25, 2000.^{th}Topical Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging - U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, and H. Grabinski, "Accurate electrical measurement of coupled lines on lossy silicon,"
*9*, pp. 181-184, Oct. 23-25, 2000.^{th}Topical Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging - U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, and H. Grabinski, "Asymmetric Coupled CMOS Lines-An Experimental Study,"
*IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 48, no. 12, Dec. 2000. - U. Arz, H. Grabinski, and D.F. Williams, "Influence of the Substrate Resistivity on the Broadband Propagation Characteristics of Silicon Transmission Lines,"
*54*, Dec. 1-2, 1999.^{th}ARFTG Conference Digest - D.F. Williams and D.K. Walker, "0.1-10 GHz CMOS Voltage Standard,"
*IEEE Workshop on Signal Propagation on Interconnects*, Titisee-Neustadt, Germany, May 19-21, 1999. - D.F. Williams and D. C. DeGroot, "Electrical Measurements for Electronic Interconnections at NIST,"
*1999 URSI General Assembly*, Toronto, Canada, August 13-21, 1999. - D. F. Williams, "Metal-insulator-semiconductor transmission lines,"
*IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 176-181, Feb. 1999. - D. F. Williams, "High frequency limitations of the JEDEC 123 guideline,"
*7*, pp. 54-57, Oct. 26-28, 1998.^{th}Topical Meeting on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging - D.C. DeGroot and D. F. Williams, "National Institute of Standards and Technology programs in electrical measurements for electronic interconnections,"
*7*, pp. 45-49, Oct. 26-28, 1998.^{th}Topical Meeting on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging - D. F. Williams and D. K. Walker, "In-line multiport calibration,"
*51*, pp. 88-90, June 12, 1998.^{st}ARFTG Conference Digest - D. F. Williams, "Metal-insulator-semiconductor transmission line model,"
*51*, pp. 65-71, June 12, 1998.^{st}ARFTG Conference Digest - D. F. Williams, U. Arz, and H. Grabinski "Accurate Characteristic Impedance Measurement on Silicon,"
*1998 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest*, pp. 1917-1920, June 9-11, 1998. - D. F. Williams, M. D. Janezic, A. Ralston, S. List, "Quasi-TEM model for coplanar waveguide on silicon,"
*1997 EPEP Conference Digest*, pp. 225-228, Oct. 27-29, 1997. - M. D. Janezic and D. F. Williams, "Permittivity Characterization from Transmission-Line Measurement,"
*IEEE International Microwave Symposium Digest*, vol. 3, pp. 1343-1345, June 10-12, 1997. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Electrical characterization methods for high-speed interconnections,"
*International Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging*, vol. 18, pp. 207-216, 1995. - R. B. Marks, J. A. Jargon, C. K. Pao, and C. P. Wen, "Electrical Measurements of Microwave Flip-Chip Interconnections,"
*Proceedings of the International Symposium on Microelectronics*, pp. 424-429, Los Angeles, CA, Oct. 1995. - R. B. Marks, J. A. Jargon, C. K. Pao, C. P. Wen, and Y. C. Shih, "Microwave Characterization of Flip-Chip MMIC Components,"
*Proceedings of the Electronic Components and Technology Conference*, pp. 343-350, Las Vegas, NV, May 1995. - R. B. Marks, J. A. Jargon, C. K. Pao, and C. P. Wen, "Microwave Characterization of Flip-Chip MMIC Interconnections,"
*IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest*, Orlando, FL, pp. 1463-1466, May 1995. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Accurate electrical characterization of high-speed interconnections," Proceedings, 1994 International Symposium on Microelectronics, pp. 96-101, Nov. 1994. (
*Best Paper of session Award*) - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "On-Wafer Impedance Measurement on Lossy Substrates,"
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 175-176, June 1994. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Microwave Characterization of Printed Circuit Transmission Lines,"
*NEPCON East*, pp. 520-527, June 1994. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Accurate Transmission Line Characterization,"
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 247-249, Aug. 1993. - R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Interconnection Transmission Line Parameter Characterization,"
*40th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 88-95, Dec. 1992. - D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Frequency-Dependent Transmission Line Parameters,"
*IEEE Topical Meeting on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging*, pp. 125-127, Apr. 1992. - K. Phillips and D. Williams, "MMIC Package Characterization with Active Loads,"
*36th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 64-72, Nov. 1990. - D. F. Williams, "Damping of the Resonant Modes of a Rectangular Metal Package,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 253-256, Jan. 1989.

**Electronic Materials Characterization**

- M.D. Janezic, D.F. Williams, V. Blaschke, A. Karamcheti, and C.S. Chang, "Permittivity characterization of low-k thin films from transmission-line measurements,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech.*, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 132-136, January 2003. - M. D. Janezic and J. A. Jargon, "Complex Permittivity Determination from Propagation Constant Measurements,
*IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters*, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 76-78, Feb. 1999. - D. F. Williams, U. Arz, and H. Grabinski "Accurate Characteristic Impedance Measurement on Silicon,"
*1998 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest*, pp. 1917-1920, June 9-11, 1998. - D. F. Williams, M. D. Janezic, A. Ralston, S. List, "Quasi-TEM model for coplanar waveguide on silicon,"
*1997 EPEP Conference Digest*, pp. 225-228, Oct. 27-29, 1997. - D. F. Williams, J.-M. Belquin, A. Spisser, A. Cappy, and D. Dambrine, "Characterization of coplanar waveguide on epitaxial layers,"
*Electronics Letters*, vol. 33, no. 17, pp. 1468-1469, Aug. 1997. - M. D. Janezic and D. F. Williams, "Permittivity Characterization from Transmission-Line Measurement,"
*IEEE International Microwave Symposium Digest*, vol. 3, pp. 1343-1345, June 10-12, 1997.

**High-Speed Electrical and Electro-optic Measurements**

- Wang, C. M. J., Hale, P. D., Jargon, J. A., Williams, D. F., Remley, K. A., "Sequential Estimation of Timebase Corrections for an Arbitrarily Long Waveform," IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 2689-2694, Oct. 2012.
- P.D. Hale, J. Jargon, C.M. Wang, B. Grossman, J. Torres, A. Dienstfrey, D.F. Williams, "A Statistical Study of De-Embedding Applied to Eye Diagram Analysis," IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 475-488, February 2012.
- A. Lewandowski and D.F. Williams, "Characterization and modeling of random vector network analyzer measurement errors,"
*17th International Conf. on Microwaves, Radar and Wireless Communications*, 19-21 May, 2008. - C.M. Wang, P.D. Hale and D.F. Williams, "Uncertainty of timebase corrections,"
*IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.,*vol. 58, no. 10, pp 3468-3472, Oct. 2009. - P.D. Hale, A. Dienstfrey, C.M. Wang, D.F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, D.A. Keenan and T.S. Clement "Traceable waveform calibration With a covariance-Based uncertainty analysis,"
*IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas*., vol. 58, no. 10, pp 3554-3568, Oct. 2009. - D. F. Williams, T.S. Clement, K. A. Remley, and P. D. Hale, "Systematic error of the nose-to-nose sampling-oscilloscope calibration,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech*., vol. 55, no. 9, Sept. 2007, pp. 1951-1963. - D.F. Williams, P.D. Hale, K.A. Remley, "The sampling oscilloscope as a microwave instrument,"
*IEEE Microwave Magazine*, Aug. 2007, pp. 59-68. - D.F. Williams, T.S. Clement, P.D. Hale, and A. Dienstfrey, "Terminology for high-speed sampling-oscilloscope calibration,"
*ARFTG Conf. Dig.*, pp. 9-14, Dec. 2006. (ARFTG best paper award) - P. D. Hale, C. M. Wang, D. F. Williams, K. A. Remley, and J. Wepman, "Compensation of random and systematic timing errors in sampling oscilloscopes,"
*IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.,*vol. 55, no. 6. pp. 2146-2154, Dec. 2006. - A. Dienstfrey, P. D. Hale, D. A. Keenan, T. S. Clement, D. F. Williams, " Minimum-phase calibration of sampling oscilloscopes,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.*, pp. 3197 - 3208, Aug. 2006. - T.S. Clement, P.D. Hale, D.F. Williams, C. M. Wang, A. Dienstfrey, and D.A. Keenan, "Calibration of sampling oscilloscopes with high-speed photodiodes,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.*, pp. 3173 - 3181, Aug. 2006. - D. F. Williams, H. Khenissi, F. Ndagijimana, K. A. Remley, J. P. Dunsmore, P. D. Hale, C. M. Wang, and T. S. Clement, "Sampling-Oscilloscope Measurement of a Microwave Mixer with Single-Digit Phase Accuracy,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.*vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 1210-1217, March 2006. - D. F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, T. S. Clement, C. M. Wang, P. D. Hale, J. M. Morgan, D. Keenan, and A. Dienstfrey, "Covariance-Based Uncertainty Analysis of the NIST Electrooptic Sampling System,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.*, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 481-491, Jan. 2006. - D.F. Williams, P.D. Hale, T.S. Clement, and J.M. Morgan, "Calibrated 200 GHz Waveform Measurement,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech*., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1384-1389, April, 2005. - D.F. Williams, P.D. Hale, T.S. Clement, C.M. Wang, "Uncertainty of the NIST electrooptic sampling system," NIST Tech. Note 1535, Dec. 2004.
- K. A. Remley, D. F. Williams, D. F. Schreurs, and J. Wood, "Simplifying and interpreting two-tone measurements," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 2576-2584, Nov. 2004.
- K.A. Remley and D.F. Williams, "Sampling oscilloscope models and calibrations,"
*2003 Int. Microwave Symp. Dig.*, pp. 1507-1510, June 10-12, 2003. (invited) - P.D. Hale and D.F. Williams, "Calibrated measurement of optoelectronic frequency response,"
*IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn.*, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1422-1429, April 2003. (Winner of the NIST Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory 2003 Outstanding Authorship Award.) - T.S. Clement, P.D. Hale, D.F. Williams, and J.M. Morgan, "Calibrating Photoreceiver Response to 110 GHz,"
*15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Confrence Digest*, Nov. 10-14, 2002, Glasglow, Scotland. - U. Arz, H.C. Reader, P. Kabos, D.F. Williams, "Wideband Frequency-Domain Characterization of High-Impedance Probes,"
*58th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 117-124, Nov. 29-30, 2001. - D.F. Williams, P.D. Hale, T.S. Clement, and J.M. Morgan, "Calibrating electro-optic sampling systems,"
*Int. Microwave Symposium Digest*, Phoenix, AZ, pp. 1527-1530, May 20-25, 2001. - P.D. Hale, T.S. Clement, D.F. Williams, E. Balta, and N.D. Taneja, "Measuring the Frequency Response of Gigabit Chip Photodiodes,"
*J. Lightwave Technol*., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1333-1339, September 2001. - P.D. Hale, T.S. Clement, and D.F. Williams, "Frequency response metrology for high-speed optical receivers, "
*Optical Fiber Conference (OFC'01) Digest*, Anaheim, CA, pp. WQ1-1-3, March 17-22, 2001. - P.D. Hale, T.S. Clement, and D.F. Williams, "Measuring frequency response of high-speed optical receivers requires microwave measurements," SPIE's OE Magazine, p. 56, March 2001.
- D.F. Williams, P.D. Hale, T.S. Clement, and J.M. Morgan, "Mismatch corrections for electro-optic sampling systems,"
*56th ARFTG Conference Digest*, pp. 141-145, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 2000. (*Best Poster Award*)

Created August 19, 2009, Updated August 26, 2016