This paper investigates the accuracy of on-wafer scattering-parameter calibrations at the probe tips. Data show the extent to which certain probe-tip calibrations are consistent with one another and applicable to the characterization of devices or circuits fabricated on different wafers or embedded in different transmission-line media. Calibrations to the probe tips are especially well suited to lower-frequency microwave measurements. Further results demonstrate conditions under which probe-tip calibrations fail.
and Marks, R.
Calibrating On-Wafer Probes to the Probe Tips, Tech Dig., Auto. RF Tech. Group Conf., Orlando, FL, [online], https://doi.org/10.1109/ARFTG.1992.327008
(Accessed May 29, 2023)