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ISO/IEC 18305: 2016 - Table of Contents


Table of Contents

1. Scope 
2. Normative references 
3. Terms and definitions 
4. Abbreviated terms 
5. LTS taxonomy 
5.1 Types of location sensors 
5.1.1 Unimodal systems 
5.1.2 Multimodal systems 
5.2 Reliance on pre-existing networking / localization infrastructure 
5.2.1 LTSs requiring infrastructure 
5.2.2 LTSs capable of infrastructure-less operation 
5.2.3 Real-time deployment of nodes facilitating localization 
5.2.4 Opportunistic use of infrastructure/environment 
5.3 Off-line, building-specific training 
5.3.1 LTSs requiring off-line training 
5.3.2 LTSs not requiring off-line training 
5.4 Ultimate consumer(s) of location information 
5.4.1 Introduction 
5.4.2 The ELT 18 
5.4.3 The tracking authority 
5.4.4 Both the ELT and the tracking authority 
6. LTS privacy and security considerations 
6.1 Privacy 
6.2 Security 
7. T&E methodology taxonomy 
7.1 System vs. component testing 
7.1.1 System testing 
7.1.2 Component testing 
7.2 Knowledge about LTS inner-workings 
7.2.1 T&E designed with full knowledge of LTS inner-workings 
7.2.2 Black-box testing 
7.3 Repeatability 
7.3.1 Repeatable testing 
7.3.2 Non-repeatable testing 
7.4 Test site 
7.4.1 Building-wide testing 
7.4.2 Laboratory testing 
7.5 Ground truth 
7.5.1 Off-line surveyed test points 
7.5.2 Reference LTS 
8. LTS performance metrics 
8.1 Introduction 
8.2 Floor detection probability 
8.3 Zone detection probability 
8.4 Means of various errors 
8.5 Covariance matrix of the error vector 
8.6 Variances of magnitudes of various errors 
8.7 RMS values of various errors 
8.8 Absolute mean of the error vector 
8.9 Circular Error 95% (CE95) and Circular Error Probable (CEP) 
8.10 Vertical Error 95% (VE95) and Vertical Error Probable (VEP) 
8.11 Spherical Error 95% (SE95) and Spherical Error Probable (SEP) 
8.12 Coverage 
8.13 Relative accuracy 
8.14 Latency 
8.15 Set-up time 
8.16 Optional performance metrics 
8.16.1 Location-specific accuracy 
8.16.2 Availability 
9. Optional performance metrics for LTS use in mission critical applications 
9.1 Introduction 
9.2 Susceptibility 
9.3 Resilience 
10. T&E considerations and scenarios 
10.1 Building types 
10.1.1 Introduction 
10.1.2 Wooden structure single-family house 
10.1.3 Medium-size brick & concrete office building 
10.1.4 Warehouse/factory 
10.1.5 High-rise steel structure 
10.1.6 Subterranean structure 
10.2 Effects of mobility 
10.2.1 Introduction 
10.2.2 Stationary object/person 
10.2.3 Walking 
10.2.4 Running 
10.2.5 Backward walking 
10.2.6 Sidestepping 
10.2.7 Crawling 
10.3 Failure modes and vulnerabilities of location sensors 
10.4 T&E scenarios 
11. T&E reporting requirements 
11.1 Introduction 
11.2 Test place and date 
11.3 Environmental conditions 
11.4 LTS product tested 
11.5 Equipment used by the LTS 
11.6 ELTD features 
11.7 Location data format 
11.8 Location update rate and system capacity 
11.9 RF emission and interference issues 
11.10 Set-up procedure 
11.11 Building information needed by the LTS 
11.12 LTS GUIs 
11.12.1 ELTD GUI 
11.12.2 Tracking authority GUI 
11.13 Maintenance 
11.14 Floor plans of test buildings 
11.15 Characterization of T&E scenarios involving entities in motion 
11.16 Presentation of numerical T&E results 
11.17 Visualization of T&E results 
Annex A (normative) Conversions between local Cartesian and WGS 84 coordinates 
A.1 Introduction 
A.2 Establishing a local 3D Cartesian coordinate system and other preliminaries 
A.3 Conversion from WGS 84 coordinates to local 3D Cartesian coordinates 
A.4 Conversion from the local 3D Cartesian coordinates to WGS 84 coordinates 
A.5 Verification and validation of MATLAB coordinate conversion codes 
Annex B (informative) Location sensors and their failure modes 
B.1 Introduction 
B.2 RF-based location sensors 
B.2.1 General 
B.2.2 RSS 
B.2.3 Proximity 
B.2.4 TOA 
B.2.5 TDOA 
B.2.6 AOA 
B.2.7 Signals of opportunity 
B.3 Range/pseudo-range finder 
B.5 Differential GNSS 
B.6 Accelerometer 
B.7 Gyroscope 
B.8 Magnetometer 
B.9 IMU 
B.10 Pedometer 
B.11 Inclinometer 
B.12 Altimeter 
B.13 Acoustic sensor 
B.14 Imager 
B.14.1 General 
B.14.2 Optical 
B.14.3 Infrared 
B.14.4 Lidar 

Created February 22, 2024, Updated March 11, 2024