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WSQ Bibliography

The Wavelet Scalar Quantization (WSQ) fingerprint compression algorithm was developed by the FBI in close coordination with NIST over several years in the early 90's. At that time, automated fingerprint matching technologies were becoming a key criminal justice tool, and the FBI was in need of an effective and efficient standard methodology to support the electronic exchange of fingerprint images; particularly as the FBI was beginning plans to stand up their Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS). The WSQ algorithm was specifically designed to compress 8-bit gray-scale, 500 ppi (19.7 ppmm), fingerprint imagery. This bibliography lists documentation describing the technical details of the algorithm. It also chronicles the development process involving both technical studies as well as strategic efforts to achieve community acceptance and adoption.

This seminal work was conducted in collaboration with the International Association for Identification (IAI), particularly the AFIS Subcommittee - active at that time (1992-1995). NIST would like to acknowledge the IAI's Journal of Forensic Identification for its fine work in documenting and archiving the evolution of the WSQ algorithm, and for permitting NIST to electronically share these articles within this bibliography.

  1. R. Moore, Electronic exchange of fingerprint images – WSQ Compression Review Group, Journal of Forensic Identification, 43(1), pp. 81-85, February 1993.
  2. C. Brislawn, Classification of symmetric wavelet transforms, Los Alamos National Laboratory, March 22, 1993.
  3. W. Watling and T. Evans, NIST Standards on Livescan, Journal of Forensic Identification, 43(3), pp. 223-225, June 1993.
  4. R. Moore, Electronic exchange of fingerprint images – summary of the December 11, 1992 Compression Review Group meeting, Journal of Forensic Identification, 43(3), pp. 281-284, June 1993.
  5. R.M. McCabe, NIST-coordinated standard for fingerprint data interchange, Journal of Forensic Identification, 43(4), pp. 344-348, August 1993.
  6. J. Bradley, C. Brislawn, and T. Hopper, FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard for gray-scale fingerprint image compression, Proc. SPIE 1961, Visual Information Processing II, pp. 293-304, August 27, 1993.
  7. J. Bradley and C. Brislawn, Proposed first-generation WSQ bit allocation procedure, Los Alamos National Laboratory, September 8, 1993.
  8. R. Moore, Summary of the June 3, 1993, Compression Review Group meeting, Journal of Forensic Identification, 43(5), pp. 524-528, October 1993.
  9. C. Shane, The IAI and the development of standards for electronic fingerprint images (United States) , Journal of Forensic Identification, 43(6), pp. 629-636, December 1993.
  10. D. Woodlee, AFIS Subcommittee Report, Journal of Forensic Identification, 43(6), pp. 640-645, December 1993.
  11. M. Fitzpatrick, I.A.I. WSQ compression /decompression algorithm test report, January 1994.
  12. J. Bradley and C. Brislawn, The wavelet / scalar quantization compression standard for digital fingerprint images, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 3:205-208, May 30, 1994.
  13. J. Polski, President's message, Journal of Forensic Identification, 44(3), pp. 297-298, June 1994.
  14. P. Higgins, Standards for the electronic submission of fingerprint cards to the FBI, Journal of Forensic Identification, 45(4), pp. 409-418, August 1995.
  15. C. Brislawn, Fingerprints go digital, Notices of the AMS, Vol. 42(11), pp. 1278-1283, November 1995.
  16. WSQ gray-scale fingerprint image compression specification – Version 3, IAFIS-IC-0110(V3), December 19,1997.
  17. WSQ gray-scale fingerprint image compression specification – Version 3.1, IAFIS-IC-0110(V3.1) , October 4, 2010.
Created March 16, 2015, Updated February 21, 2017