Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

REFERENCE TABLES


  Normal Boiling Points [K] of Cryogenic Fluids
 
 Melting Points [K] of Soft Metals
Helium-3 3.19 Indium 430
Helium-4 4.21

Cadmium *

594
Hydrogen 20.27 Lead 601
Neon 27.09 Aluminum 933
Nitrogen 77.36 Copper 1357

* Note: cadmium vapor pressure becomes unacceptably high above 420 K
* NOTE: Brass (70%Cu & 30%Zn) is not advisable to be placed in the neutron beam

 

Physical properties of selected metals at 295K
 
Metal atomic weight density (g/ml) Debye temperature
[K]
linear thermal
expansion coeff.
(10-6/K)
thermal conductivity
[Wm-1K-1]
Aluminum 26.97 2.70 380 22.91 235
Cadmium 112.4 8.65 175 31 97
Copper 63.54 8.96 310 16.66 400
Gold 197 19.3 185 14.2 317
Indium 114.76 7.31 110 32.1 87
Lead 207.21 11.31 88 28.8 35
Stainless Steel 304 --- 8 --- 15 15
Brass (70 Cu 30 Zn) --- 8.5 --- 18 120

 


Vapor Pressures and
Equivalent Monolayer Deposition Rates (assuming unity sticking coefficient)
versus Temperature [K]
Element Melt Point 10-5 Torr 10-4 Torr 10-3 Torr 10-2 Torr 10-1 Torr
10 layer/s 102 layer/s 103 layer/s 104 layer/s 105 layer/s
Cd 594 421 453 493 537 594
Zn 692 484 521 565 616 678
Mg 924 560 604 656 716 ---
Pb 601 765 821 --- --- ---
In 430 940 --- --- --- ---

 

 

Unit Conversions
1 atmosphere = 1.01 Bar = 101 KPa = 760 Torr (or mm Hg) = 14.7 psi
T [Celsius] = T [K] - 273.15 = (5/9)( T[F] - 32 )
1 meter = 39.37 inches
1 joule=0.239 calories

 

 

Sources:
(1) Experimental Techniques in Low-Temperature Physics, 3rd Edition, Guy K. White, Oxford University Press (1979)
(2) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 56th Edition, Robert C. Weast (Ed.), CRC Press (1975)

Created June 5, 2017, Updated November 15, 2019