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Publications

Search Publications by

Xiaoyu Alan Zheng (Fed)

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Displaying 1 - 25 of 31

Firearm examination: Examiner judgments and computer-based comparisons

September 24, 2020
Author(s)
Erwin J. Mattijssen, Cilia Witteman, Charles Berger, Xiaoyu Alan Zheng, Johannes A. Soons, Reinoud Stoel
Forensic firearm examination provides the court of law with information about the source of fired cartridge cases. We assessed the validity of source decisions of a computer-based method and of 73 firearm examiners who compared breechface and firing pin

NIST Ballistics Toolmark Research Database

January 27, 2020
Author(s)
Xiaoyu Alan Zheng, Johannes A. Soons, Robert M. Thompson, Sushama P. Singh, Cerasela Constantin
In 2009, a report by the National Academies called into question, amongst other issues, the objectivity of visual toolmark identification by firearms examiners. The National Academies recommended development of objective toolmark identification criteria

Addressing Quality Assurance Issues in 3D Firearm and Toolmark Imaging

April 1, 2018
Author(s)
Michael T. Stocker, Robert M. Thompson, Johannes A. Soons, Thomas B. Renegar, Xiaoyu A. Zheng
The emerging capability for measuring and analyzing the three-dimensional (3D) surface topography of forensic samples is expected to have a profound impact on firearm and toolmark identification. As forensic laboratories are working to integrate 3D

NIST Ballistics Toolmark Research Database

December 5, 2016
Author(s)
Xiaoyu Alan Zheng, Johannes A. Soons, Robert M. Thompson
The NIST Ballistics Toolmark Research Database (NBTRD) is an open-access research database of bullet and cartridge case toolmark data. The development of the database is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Justice's National Institute of Justice. The

The Second National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC-2)

January 5, 2015
Author(s)
Theodore V. Vorburger, James H. Yen, Jun-Feng Song, Robert M. Thompson, Thomas Brian Renegar, Xiaoyu Alan Zheng, D Ott, Martin G. Ols
In response to the guidelines issued by the American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors/Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD/LAB-International) to establish traceability and quality assurance in U.S. crime laboratories, NIST and the ATF initiated a

Applications of Surface Metrology in Firearm Identification

January 8, 2014
Author(s)
Xiaoyu Alan Zheng, Johannes A. Soons, Theodore V. Vorburger, Jun-Feng Song, Thomas Brian Renegar, Robert M. Thompson
Surface metrology is commonly used to characterize functional engineering surfaces. The technologies developed offer opportunities to improve forensic toolmark identification. Toolmarks are created when a tool comes into contact with a surface and causes

Applications of Surface Metrology in Toolmark Identification

January 8, 2014
Author(s)
Xiaoyu Alan Zheng, Johannes A. Soons, Theodore V. Vorburger, Jun-Feng Song, Thomas Brian Renegar, Robert M. Thompson
Surface metrology is commonly used to characterize functional engineering surfaces. The technologies developed offer opportunities to improve forensic toolmark identification. In 2009, a report by the National Academies called into question, amongst others

Two Applications of Small Feature Dimensional Measurements on a CMM with a Fiber Probe

September 4, 2013
Author(s)
Eric S. Stanfield, Bala Muralikrishnan, Theodore D. Doiron, Xiaoyu Alan Zheng, Shahram Orandi, david Duquette
We describe two interesting applications of dimensional measurements performed using a contact fiber probe on a commercial Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). Both examples involve artifacts that serve as material standards and contain features in the 100

The Effect of Tip Size in Calibration of Surface Roughness Specimens with Rectangular Profiles

September 2, 2013
Author(s)
Jun-Feng Song, Thomas B. Renegar, Johannes A. Soons, Balasubramanian Muralikrishnan, John S. Villarrubia, Xiaoyu A. Zheng, Theodore V. Vorburger
For the calibration of rectangular and trapezoidal profile roughness specimens, stylus tip will increase profile peak width and decrease valley width, which may cause the Ra changes (either increase or decrease, depends on the profile shape). Sometimes the

Applications of Profile Filtering in the Dimensional Metrology of Fuel Cell Plates

May 14, 2013
Author(s)
Balasubramanian Muralikrishnan, Wei Ren, Eric S. Stanfield, Dennis S. Everett, Xiaoyu A. Zheng, Theodore D. Doiron
We describe the application of several surface profile filters as an enabling tool in the dimensional measurements of an engineering artifact, namely, a fuel cell plate. We recently reported work on the development of a non-contact system for dimensional

Topography Measurements and Performance Comparisons between NIST SRM 2460 Standard Bullet Masters and BKA Bullet Replicas

July 31, 2012
Author(s)
Jun-Feng Song, Theodore V. Vorburger, Robert M. Thompson, Susan M. Ballou, Xiaoyu Alan Zheng, Thomas Brian Renegar, Richard M. Silver
Two Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 Bullets produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were used as masters for the fabrication of replica bullets at the Bundeskriminalamt (BKA). The surface topography of the SRM masters

Development of Ballistics Identification - From Image Comparison to Topography Measurement in Surface Metrology-

March 22, 2012
Author(s)
Jun-Feng Song, Theodore V. Vorburger, Robert M. Thompson, Thomas Brian Renegar, Xiaoyu Alan Zheng, James H. Yen, Richard M. Silver, Wei Chu
Fired bullets and ejected cartridge cases have unique ballistics signatures left by the firearm. By analyzing the ballistics signatures, forensic examiners can trace these bullets and cartridge cases to the firearm used in a crime scene. Current automated

Stylus Tip-Size Effect on the Calibration of Periodic Roughness Specimens with Rectangular Profiles

March 21, 2012
Author(s)
Thomas B. Renegar, Johannes A. Soons, Balasubramanian Muralikrishnan, John S. Villarrubia, Xiaoyu A. Zheng, Theodore V. Vorburger, Jun-Feng Song
Stylus instruments are widely used for surface characterization. It is well known that the size and shape of the stylus tip affects the measured surface geometry and parameters. In most cases, increasing the tip size decreases the measured Ra value because

The National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC) Project

March 10, 2012
Author(s)
Jun-Feng Song, Theodore V. Vorburger, Susan M. Ballou, Robert M. Thompson, James H. Yen, Thomas Brian Renegar, Xiaoyu Alan Zheng, Richard M. Silver, Martin Ols
In response to the guidelines issued by the ASCLD/LAB-International (American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors/Laboratory Accreditation Board) to establish traceability and quality assurance in U.S. crime laboratories, a NIST/ATF joint project

An Iterative Algorithm for Calculating Stylus Radius Unambiguously

September 24, 2011
Author(s)
Theodore V. Vorburger, Xiaoyu A. Zheng, Thomas B. Renegar, Jun-Feng Song, Li Ma
The stylus radius is an important specification for stylus instruments and is commonly provided by instrument manufacturers. However, it is difficult to measure the stylus radius unambiguously. Accurate profiles of the stylus tip may be obtained by

GEOMETRICAL MEASUREMENTS OF NIST SRM ROCKWELL HARDNESS DIAMOND INDENTERS

November 21, 2010
Author(s)
Jun-Feng Song, Samuel R. Low III, Xiaoyu A. Zheng
The geometric parameters of 28 candidate Standard Reference Material (SRM) Rockwell hardness diamond indenters are calibrated by an automated system recently developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The calibration results

Topography measurements for correlations of standard cartridge cases

July 1, 2010
Author(s)
Theodore V. Vorburger, Jun-Feng Song, Wei Chu, Thomas Brian Renegar, Xiaoyu Alan Zheng, James H. Yen, Robert M. Thompson, Richard M. Silver, Benjamin Bachrach, Martin Ols
NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRM) 2460 Standard Bullets and 2461 Standard Cartridge Cases are intended for use as check standards for crime laboratories to help verify that their computerized optical imaging equipment for ballistics image

Applications of Cross-Correlation Functions

April 14, 2010
Author(s)
Theodore V. Vorburger, Jun-Feng Song, Wei Chu, Li Ma, Xiaoyu A. Zheng, Thomas B. Renegar, Son H. Bui
We describe several examples where we use cross-correlation functions to quantify the similarity of 2D surface profiles or of 3D surface topography images. The applications have included 1) the manufacture of Standard Reference Material (SRM) bullets and

Three steps towards metrological traceability for ballistics signature measurements

February 1, 2010
Author(s)
Jun-Feng Song, Theodore V. Vorburger, Robert M. Thompson, Thomas Brian Renegar, Xiaoyu Alan Zheng, Li Ma, James H. Yen, Martin Ols
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in collaboration with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) has developed the Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 bullets and 2461 casings. NIST and ATF are proposing to

Traceability for Ballistics Signature Measurements in Forensic Science

December 1, 2009
Author(s)
Jun-Feng Song, Theodore V. Vorburger, Susan M. Ballou, Li Ma, Thomas Brian Renegar, Xiaoyu Alan Zheng, Martin Ols
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in collaboration with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) has developed the Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 Bullets and 2461 Casings. NIST has also developed a 2D

NIST SRM (Standard Reference Material) 2460/2461 Standard Bullets and Casings Project

October 13, 2009
Author(s)
Jun-Feng Song, Thomas Brian Renegar, Xiaoyu Alan Zheng, Robert M. Thompson, Richard M. Silver, Martin M. Ols, Ted T. Vorburger
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in collaboration with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) has developed the Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 Bullets and 2461 Cartridge Cases. NIST has also

GEOMETRIC MEASUREMENT COMPARISONS FOR ROCKWELL DIAMOND INDENTERS

September 6, 2009
Author(s)
Jun-Feng Song, Samuel R. Low III, Xiaoyu A. Zheng
In the uncertainty budget of Rockwell C hardness (HRC) tests, geometric error of the Rockwell diamond indenter is a major contributor. The geometric calibration of Rockwell diamond indenters has been a key issue for Rockwell hardness standardization. The