Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.


Information management for Environmental Concerns

Eric D. Simmon, John V. Messina, Kevin G. Brady
Around the world there is a growing awareness that the environmental impact from manufacturing needs to be minimized. Concerns about issues from toxic materials

CVSS-SIG Version 2 History

Peter M. Mell, Karen A. Scarfone, Gavin Reid
This document attempts to interpret the history and rationale behind changes made in the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) from version 1 to version 2

Cryogenic Technologies Group Website

Marilyn R. Yetzbacher, Peter E. Bradley
Revised website of Information pertaining to the Cryogenics Group. Provides general information, staffing, contact information, articles and publications

Differential magnetometry based on a diverging laser beam

Eleanor Hodby, Elizabeth A. Donley, John E. Kitching
We discuss a new, compact design for a chip-scale differential atomic magnetometer that uses a single diverging laser beam to both pump and multiply probe the

Spin Torque for Dummies

Thomas J. Silva
I will present a stripped down presentation on the fundamental mechanisms that give rise to spin torque effects. This presentation will assume the audience has

Scanning Tunneling Microscope - Web Page

Marilyn E. Jacox, John William Gadzuk
The scanning tunneling microscope [STM] is widely used in both industrial and fundamental research to obtain atomic-scale images of metal surfaces. It provides

Ionic Liquids Database (ILThermo)

Qian Dong, Andrei F. Kazakov, Chris D. Muzny, Robert D. Chirico, Jason A. Widegren, Vladimir Diky, Joe W. Magee, Kenneth N. Marsh, Michael D. Frenkel
Ionic Liquids Database (ILThermo)is a free web research tool that allow users worldwide to access an up-to-data data collection from the publications on

CCEM.RF-S1.CL (GTRF/02-03): RF Power Measurements with 2.4 mm Connectors

Thomas P. Crowley, J Miall, J dereede, J. Furrer, A Michaud, E. Dressler, T Zhang, K. Shimaoka, Ji Hyun Kim
A supplementary comparison of RF power measurements using 2.4 mm connectors was performed at 9 national metrology laboratories. The traveling standards were two

High-Contrast CPT Resonances

John E. Kitching
The performance of an atomic clock or magnetometer based on CPT is determined by the resonance width and the signal-to-noise ratio. In particular, a large

Long-term Frequency Stability of Chip-Scale Atomic Clocks

Vladislav Gerginov, Svenja A. Knappe, V Shah, P Schwindt, Leo W. Hollberg, John E. Kitching
We present an evaluation of the long-term frequency instability and environmental sensitivity of a chip-scale atomic clock based on coherent population trapping

Chip-Scale Atomic Devices at NIST

John E. Kitching
The NIST program on chip-scale atomic devices (CSAD) seeks to design, build and characterize miniature atomic instruments and sensors based on fabrication

NIST Atomic Spectra Database (2006)

Yuri Ralchenko, Jeffrey R. Fuhr, F -. Jou, William C. Martin, Larissa Podobedova, Joseph Reader, Jean E. Sansonetti, Wolfgang L. Wiese