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Reference List

The following Reference List contains cybersecurity articles, strategies, reports, programs, and efforts that were compiled and consulted as part of an environmental scan to inform the assessment of current cybersecurity education and training efforts.

Please note: These resources were referenced in 2017. Some of the original links may no longer be working and/or accurate.

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A Cybersecurity Agenda for the 45th President. (2017, January 5). Retrieved from

An Examination of the Cybersecurity Labor Market. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Applications Now Available for City Colleges of Chicago’s New Cyber Security “Boot Camp”. (2017, March 18). Retrieved from

ApprenticeshipUSA Investments. (2017, June 22). Retrieved from

Assante, M., Tobey, D. (2011, February 4). Enhancing the Cybersecurity Workforce. Retrieved from

Assessment Act. Retrieved from

ATE Centers. (n.d.). Retrieved from

ATE Centers and National Science Foundation. (n.d.). ATE Centers Impact Report. Retrieved from

ATE Centers and National Science Foundation. (n.d.). ATE Programs and Overview. Retrieved from

AUSTRALIA’S CYBER SECURITY STRATEGY Enabling innovation, growth & prosperity [PDF]. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Baltimore Cyber Range and Cyberbit Open New Cybersecurity Training and Simulation Center. (2017, August 3). Retrieved from

Bessen, J. (2014, August 25). Employers Aren’t Just Whining – the “Skills Gap” is Real. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from

Best in Class Strategies for Entry-Level Employee Retention Prepared for 100K [PDF]. (2016, October). FSG Reimagining Social Change. Retrieved from

Best Places to Work for Cyber Ninjas. (2017, May). Retrieved from

Bojanova, I., Vaulx, F., Zettsu, K., Simmon, E., Sowe, S. (2016, January 21). Cyber-Physical-Human Systems Putting People in the Loop. IT Professional. Retrieved from

Burning Glass Technologies. (2015). Job Market Intelligence: Cybersecurity Jobs, 2015 [PDF].   Retrieved from

Canadian Apprenticeship Forum Forum Canadien Sur I’Apprentissage. (2009, June). It Pays to Hire an Apprentice: Calculating the Return on Training Investment for Skilled Trades Employers in Canada A Study of 16 Trades Phase II Final Report. Retrieved from 

Carlini, J. (2017, August 6). Geneva Convention in Cyberwarfare? Don't Count on It. Retrieved from

Carlini, J. (2017, August 06). Preparing for Nanokrieg: Electronic Wars Being Won and Lost in Microseconds. Retrieved from

Carlini, J. (2016, April 30). Nanokrieg: The Next Trillion Dollar War | @CloudExpo #Cloud #Security. Retrieved from

Carsen, D. (2017, July 31). High School Students Track Real Cybercriminals at UAB. Retrieved from

Center for Long-Term Cybersecurity, UC Berkeley. (2016). Cybersecurity Policy Ideas for a New Presidency. Retrieved from

Charney, D. (2017, February 3). 6 Talent Trends to Watch in 2017. Material Handling and Logistics (MH&L). Retrieved from

Clabaugh, J. (2017, June 22). The right stuff: DC area companies ready to hire, struggle to fill IT jobs. WTOP. Retrieved from

Coastline Community College. (2016). California Cybersecurity Apprenticeship Project (CCAP). Retrieved from 

Collegiate Sub Working Group. (2017, July 10). Retrieved from

Commission on Cybersecurity for the 44th Presidency. (2015, September 28). Retrieved from

Communications Security, Reliability and Interoperability Council. (2017). Final Report- Cybersecurity Workforce Development Best Practices Recommendations. Retrieved from 

Competitions Sub Working Group. (2017, July 10). Retrieved from

CompTIA. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Concanon, K., Williams, R., Feehan, D., Uvin, J., Yudin, M., Foster, D., … Monje, C. (2016). Federal Partnership regarding career pathways [PDF letter]. Retrieved from 

Conklin, W., Cline, R., & Roosa, T. (2014, March 10). Re-engineering Cybersecurity Education in the US: An Analysis of the Critical Factors. Retrieved from

Control-Alt-Hack(R). (n.d.). Retrieved from

Costanzo, J. (2017). Hampton Roads Cybersecurity Education, Workforce, and Economic Development Alliance (HRCyber) Mid-Project Report “Bridging the cybersecurity talent gap in Hampton Roads” [PDF]. Retrieved from

Consortium Enabling Cybersecurity Opportunities and Research. (n.d.). K-20 Cybersecurity - CECOR Project . Retrieved from

Cyberbit Protecting a New Dimension. (2017). Cyberbit Range The First Hyper-Realistic Simulation Platform for Cyber Security Experts [PDF]. Retrieved from

Cyberbit Protecting a New Dimension. (n.d.). Retrieved from

CyberCorps ®: Scholarship for Service. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2014, Pub. L. No, 113-274, 128 Stat. 2971. (2014). Retrieved from

CYBERSECURITY WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT TOOLKIT How to Build a Strong Cybersecurity Workforce [PDF]. (n.d.). U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from

Cyber Security Capital We help cyber security professionals succeed. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Cyberseek. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Cyber Competitions. (2017, May 19). Retrieved from

Cyber Discovery | NICERC. (2016). Retrieved from

Cyber Innovation Center. (2016). Retrieved from

Cyber IN-security Strengthening the Federal Cybersecurity Workforce [PDF]. (2009, July). Partnership for Public Service and Booz | Allen | Hamilton. Retrieved from

Cyber IN-security II Closing the Federal Talent Gap [PDF]. (2015, April). Partnership for Public Service and Booz | Allen | Hamilton. Retrieved from

Cyber Space Policy Review Assuring a Trusted and Resilient Information and Communications Infrastructure [PDF]. (n.d.). U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from

Dana, J. (2017, April 8). The Utter Uselessness of Job Interviews. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Department of Homeland Security. (2017). National Cyber Security Awareness Month October 2017 [PDF]. Retrieved from

Donovan, S., Cobert, B., Daniel, M., Scott, T. (2016). Memorandum for Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies. Retrieved from

Donovan, S., Cobert, B., Daniel, M., Scott, T. (2016, July 12). Strengthening the Federal Cybersecurity Workforce [Blog]. The White House President Barack Obama. Retrieved from 

Economics and Statistics Administration U.S. Department of Commerce. (2016, November 16). The Benefits and Costs of Apprenticeships: A Business Perspective. This resource was originally sourced from the Economics and Statistics Administration. 

EducationHQ News Team. (2017, July 26). Cyber Teacher Professional Learning Series Comes To Australia. Retrieved from Australia - Weekend test&utm_content=EducationWeek Australia - Weekend test%2BCID_ef0e00fb43ab4c60c283d7f99a5dba28&utm_source=EducationHQ Campaigns&utm_term=Cyber Teacher Professional Learning Series Comes To Australia

Eichensehr, M. (2017, August 3). Baltimore Cyber Range training facility opens at Power Plant Live. Retrieved from

Elbit Systems of America. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Electronic Technology Associates. (2017). Capabilities Statement.  

Elsey, B., Lanier, L., Jessie, S. (2015). Career Pathways Toolkit: A Guide for System Development [PDF]. Retrieved from

Executive Women's Forum. (n.d.). Retrieved from

FACT SHEET: Cybersecurity National Action Plan. (2016, February 9). Retrieved from

Federal Communications Commission. (2016, January 29). Task Force on Optimal PSAP Architecture (TFOPA) An FCC Federal Advisory Committee Final Adopted Report. Retrieved from

Federal Cybersecurity Workforce Assessment Act, S.2007, 114th Congress. (2015). Retrieved from

FISSEA. (n.d.). FISSEA: Federal Information Systems Security Educators’ Association. Retrieved from

Foote Partners, LLC Foote Research Group. (2016). Cash premiums earned by 65,082 IT professionals, specifically earmarked to 854 certified and noncertified IT skills, rise in 2016; IT security certifications post the highest gains over last 3,6, and 12 months among all certifications categories; For noncertified tech skills, Applications Development related skills continue to beat all others, led by not Big Data and Cloud skills [PDF].  Retrieved from

GenCyber. (n.d.). Retrieved from

General Motors. (2017, June 28). General Motors: GM Intensifies Push to Train Young People for Jobs of Future. 4-traders. Retrieved from GM-Intensifies-Push-to-Train-Young-People-for-Jobs-of-Future-24672566/

George Mason University. (2015, September 21). From Our Partners - Nanokrieg Beyond Blitzkrieg: Mindset to Fight the War on Terrorism by James Carlini. Retrieved from

George Washington University. (2014). Cybersecurity Education Workshop. Retrieved from

Goldhammer, J., Weber, S., Cooper, B., Center for Long-Term Cybersecurity: UC Berkeley. (2016). CLTC Occasional White Paper Series Cyber Workforce Incubator. Retrieved from

Good, L., & Zanville, H. (2017, August 2). Four Lessons Learned from the National Connecting Credentials Campaign [Web log post]. Retrieved from

Goodman, M. (2016, July 28). How to Attract More Diversity in Cybersecurity Hiring [Blog]. RSAConference Where the world talks security. Retrieved from

Greater Phoenix Chamber Foundation Strengthening and Expanding the Talent Pipeline: Cyber Security [PDF]. (2016, August 22). Greater Phoenix Chamber Foundation- Cyber Security Workgroup. Retrieved from

Hacking the Skills Shortage, A study of the international shortage in cybersecurity skills Center for Strategic and International Studies [PDF]. (2016). Santa Clara, CA: INTEL Security.
Retrieved from

Halvorsen, T., U.S. Department of Defense. (2015). A Department of Defense Report on the National Security Agency and Department of Homeland Security Program for the “National Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education Matters”. Washington, DC. Retrieved from

Health Care Industry Cybersecurity Task Force. (2017, June 2). Report on Improving Cybersecurity in the Health Care Industry [PDF]. Retrieved from

Helper, S., Noonan, R., Nicholson, J., Landon, D. (2016). The Benefits and Costs of Apprenticeship: A Business Perspective [PDF]. This resource was originally sourced from the Economics and Statistics Administration.

Herrmann, A., Rehm, K., Carlini, J., Schkeeper, P., Loken, L., Swanson, J., … Maltby, J. (2009, October). The CIP Report Center for Infrastructure Protection volume 8 number 4 [PDF].  Retrieved from

Hernandez, P. (2016, December 1). Commission on Enhancing National Cybersecurity. Retrieved from

Hoffman, L. J. (2010, December 15). Building the Cyber Security Workforce of the 21 Century: Report of a Workshop on Cyber Security Education and Workforce Development. Retrieved from 

Homeland Security Advisory Council Cyberskills Task Force Report Fall 2012 [PDF]. (2012). U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from

Hrabowski, F. (2014, June 18). Institutional Change in Higher Education: Innovation and Collaboration. Retrieved from

Impact of the NSF/ATE Cybersecurity Centers on the U.S. Cybersecurity Workforce. (2014, April 3). Retrieved from

Information Security Scholarships | Center for Cyber Security and Education. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Internet Security Education. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Investing in a thriving Tech workforce pipeline for LA. (2016). Retrieved from

ISACA Trust In, and Value From, Information Systems. (2017). Retrieved from

It's not where you start – it's how you finish: Addressing the cybersecurity skills gap with a new-collar approach. (2017, March 10). Retrieved from

Jackson Higgins, K. (2017, August 4). What Women in Cybersecurity Really Think About Their Careers. Retrieved from

Jenkins, J. (2016, June). What Do You Want to Be? AARP Real Possibilities. Retrieved form

Johnston, R. (2017, July 24). California groups collaborate on cybersecurity education program. Retrieved from

Jones, E. (2016, January 14). UK Government gets serious on developing security skills in 2016. ITProPortal. Retrieved from

K-12 Computer Science Framework. (n.d.). Retrieved from

K-12 Sub Working Group. (2017, July 10). Retrieved from

King, S. (2017). A Model for a National Cybersecurity Policy. Retrieved from

Larson, R., Xue, Y. (2015, May). STEM crisis or STEM surplus? Yes and yes. Monthly Labor Review Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from

Libicki, M., Senty, D., Pollak, J. (n.d.). Hackers Wanted. Retrieved from

Linthicum, S. (2017). Driving an effective cybersecurity apprentice program (Part 1). Certification Magazine. Retrieved from

Linthicum, S. (2014). Formal ICT apprenticeship programs: Why not in the USA? Go Certify. Retrieved from

List of Cybersecurity Education and Training Providers. (n.d.). Retrieved from

List of Master of Science (M.S.) in Cybersecurity Degree Programs. (2017). Retrieved from

Lumina Foundation Cigna Accenture. (2016, April 22). Talent Investments Pay Off (Cigna) Cigna Realizes Return on Investment from Tuition Benefits. Retrieved from

Lyngaas, S. (2015, August 14). A virtual community of cyber talent. FCW The Business of Federal Technology. Retrieved from

Mack, E. (2011, August 04). Top 5 Potential Cyber-Enemies for the United States. Retrieved from

Marks, J. (2017, March 02). Shoddy U.S. Cyber Deterrence Policy Emboldens Adversaries, Lawmakers Say. Retrieved from

McGettrick, A. (2013, August 30). Association for Computing Machinery: Toward Curricular Guidelines for Cybersecurity. Retrieved from

Miller, J. (2016). First-ever cyber workforce strategy aims to grow pipeline of skills. Retrieved from

Morgan, S. (2017, July 20). Great big list of cybersecurity resources. Retrieved from

Morgan, S. (2017, June 22). Cybersecurity job market to suffer severe workforce shortage 10 facts, figures and statistics summarize the cybersecurity labor market. CSO from IDG. Retrieved from

Morgan, S. (2017, May 31). Cybersecurity Ventures predicts there will be 3.5 million cybersecurity job openings by 2021. Retrieved from

Morgan, S. (2017, January 17). List of Women in Cybersecurity Associations to Join Now. Retrieved from

Morgan, S. (2016, April 07). African Americans Underrepresented In The Cybersecurity Field. Retrieved from

National Centers of Academic Excellence Cyber Defense. (2016, May 3). Retrieved from

National Cyberwatch Center. (n.d.). National Cyberwatch Center Curriculum. Retrieved from

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Baldrige Performance Excellence Program, Applied Cybersecurity Division (ITL NIST). (2017). Baldrige Cybersecurity Excellence Builder Key questions for improving your organization’s cybersecurity performance. Retrieved from

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). (2017, August). Executive Order on Cybersecurity Workforce Request For Information Responses. Retrieved from

Native Girls Code, helping diversify STEM. (2017, April 5). Retrieved from

Neal, J. (2016, March 11). Can we hire (and keep) the talent for digital government? Federal News Radio. Retrieved from

Newhouse, B., Keith, S., Scribner, B., Witte, G. (2016, November). Draft NIST Special Publication 800-181 NICE Cybersecurity Workforce Framework (NCWF) [PDF]. NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved from

NICCS Education and Training Catalog. (n.d.). Retrieved from

NICE Challenge Project Enabling the Cybersecurity Workforce of Tomorrow. (n.d.). Retrieved from

NICE led by National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) U.S. Department of Commerce. (2016). Cybersecurity Games: Building Tomorrow’s Workforce [PDF]. Retrieved from

NICERC Curricula. (2017). Retrieved from

Oesch, T. (2017, May 15). Serious Games for Serious Topics: Training Cybersecurity Professionals Using AI-Powered Games. Retrieved from

Office of Personal Management. (2016). Compensation Flexibilities to Recruit and Retain Cybersecurity Professionals. Retrieved from

Park, M. (2017, May 8). Chance for women and minorities to enter the trillion dollar cybersecurity field Jobs gap opens opportunity for a more diverse workforce. Retrieved from

Parton, B. (2017, March 23). AF Series #1: Moving Apprenticeship Forward. Retrieved from

Paulsen, C., McDuffie, E., Newhouse, W., and Toth, P. (2012, June 26). NICE: Creating a Cybersecurity Workforce and Aware Public. Retrieved from

Petrella, E. (2017, April 26). Regional Alliances and Multistakeholder Partnerships to Stimulate (RAMPS). Retrieved from

Petrella, E. (2017, April 19). NICE Interagency Coordinating Council (ICC). Retrieved from

Pomerleau, M. (2016, February 4). Report outlines cyber activity from top U.S. adversaries. Retrieved from

Pound, G. (2017, June 22). STEM verity welcomes important guests. The Union-Recorder. Retrieved from

Prebil, M. (2017, June 16). Fresh Ideas for Growing Apprenticeship. Retrieved from

Prebil, M. (2017). Teach Cybersecurity with Apprenticeship Instead: Governments, private industry, and tech culture can all benefit from a cyber workforce built on quality apprenticeships. New America. Retrieved from  

Presidential Executive Order Expanding Apprenticeships in America. (2017, June 15). Retrieved from

Professional Development. (2016). Retrieved from

Professionalizing the Nation's Cybersecurity Workforce? Criteria for Decision-Making. (2013). Retrieved from

Reauthorization of Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act. (2007, March 16). Retrieved from

Recruiting and Retaining Cybersecurity Ninjas. (2016, October 19). Retrieved from

Reed, D., Yung-Hsu Liu, A., Kleinman, R., Mastri, A., Reed, D., Sattar, S., Zeigler, J. (2012, July 25). An Effectiveness Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Registered Apprenticeship in 10 States. Retrieved from

Reeder, F., Timlin, K., Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) Strategic Technologies Program. (2016). Recruiting and Retaining Cybersecurity Ninjas. Retrieved from

Reinhold, M.D. (2016). Memo. [OPM; CHCO Council]. Retrieved from

Requirements of the Federal Cybersecurity Workforce Assessment Act. (2016, August 01). Retrieved from

Robbins, G. (2017, April 17). Tons of $80,000 entry-level jobs going ignored. The San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved from

Robinson, H. (2017, June 19). Teens join the cyber profession. Retrieved from

Saporito, L., Blute, T., National Governors Association (2014). Federal Cybersecurity Programs: A Resource Guide. Retrieved from

Scholarships for Women Studying Information Security. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Scorsone, G. (2017, July 3). Four Things You Must Do to Retain Top Tech Talent. Information Week. Retrieved from

Securing Our Future: Closing the Cybersecurity Talent Gap October 2016 results from the Raytheon-NCSA survey of young adults in 12 countries about cybersecurity career interest and preparedness [PDF]. (2016). Sterling, VA: Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services. Retrieved from

Senate - Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (2015). S.2007: Federal Cybersecurity Workforce. Assessment Act. Retrieved from

Shark, A., Metzanbaum, S., Barquin, R., Wennergren, D. (2015, August). Increasing the Effectiveness of the Federal Role in Cybersecurity Education [Draft PDF]. National Academy of Public Administration.  Retrieved from…

Shinkman, P. (2016, September 29). America Is Losing the Cyber War. US News. Retrieved from

Snell, E. (2017, May 03). Addressing the Cybersecurity Skills Gap with Improved Training. Retrieved from

State of Cybersecurity Implications for 2016 An ISACA and RSA Conference Survey [PDF]. (2016). RSA Conference | Where the world talks security and ISACA. Retrieved from

Steinberg, S., Schwartz, B. (2014, July 14). The Bottom Line: Apprenticeships Are Good for Business. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from

Strategic Plan. (2017, May 05). Retrieved from

Stratford, M. (2017, August 02). Congress passes $3B expansion of GI Bill education benefits. Retrieved from

The Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative [PDF]. (n.d.). Executive Office of the President of the United States. Retrieved from

The National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace [PDF]. (2003, February). US Cert. Retrieved from

The Role of Minorities and Women in Cybersecurity. (2016, April 12). Retrieved from

The 2015 (ISC)2 Global Information Workforce Study [PDF]. (2015). (ISC)². Retrieved from

University of Maryland Center for Advanced Study of Language. (2016, August). Assessing aptitude for cyber operations Identifying potential candidates for the U.S. Air Force.  Retrieved from

University System of Maryland. (2011). Report of the Cyber Security Task Force [PDF]. Retrieved from

University of Texas at San Antonio’s (UTSA) Center for Infrastructure Assurance and Security (CIAS). (2017, August 2). Response to the NIST RFI Strengthening the Cybersecurity of Federal Networks and Critical Infrastructure: Workforce Development [PDF]. Retrieved from

Urias, V., Leeuwen, B., Stout, W., & Lin, H. (2017, June 8). Dynamic cybersecurity training environments for an evolving cyber workforce. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Defense . (n.d.). Troops to Teachers . Retrieved from

U.S Department of Homeland Security . (2016, September 20). Cybersecurity Education & Career Development. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Homeland Security . (2015, November 19). Academic Engagement Results. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2015, November 12). Academic Engagement Overview. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Homeland Security . (n.d.). Homeland Security Careers. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Homeland Security . (n.d.). Homeland Security Careers for Students. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Homeland Security . (n.d.). Student Opportunities at the Department of Homeland Security [PDF]. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Labor. (2017, May 11). Shareables: Get the Facts On Apprenticeship. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration ApprenticeshipUSA. (2016). Data and Statistics. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Labor. (n.d.). Apprenticeship. Retrieved from

Virginia Cyber Commission. (2015). Commonwealth of Virginia Cyber Security Commission “Threats and Opportunities”. Retrieved from

Waterman, S. (2017, June 12). Recruitment and retention of 'cyber ninjas' doesn't have to be a dark art, report says. Retrieved from

Watson, E. (2015, March 12). Black Colleges at the Forefront of Cybersecurity Issues. Retrieved from

Welcome to the CAE Community. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Whitehouse, S., McCaul, M., Evans, K., Bhalotra, S., Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) Cyber Policy Task Force. (2017). From Awareness to Action a Cybersecurity Agenda for the 45th President. 

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Williams, B. D. (2017, May 26). Profiles in cyber: Understanding the US's major adversaries in cyberspace. Retrieved from

Women in Cybersecurity. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Women in Security and Privacy (WISP) Advancing Women to Lead the Future of Privacy and Security. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Women’s Society of Cyberjutsu . (n.d.). Retrieved from

Wong, C. (2017). Women in Cybersecurity A PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT. Retrieved from

Workforce Management Sub Working Group. (2017, July 10).  Retrieved from

Yasaitis, C., LeGrand, M. (2016, July 5). Cybersecurity: A Top Priority for Airline Boards. Russell Reynolds Associates. Retrieved from

Zadelhoff, M. V. (2017, May 4). Cybersecurity Has a Serious Talent Shortage. Here's How to Fix It. Retrieved from

2009 Cyberspace Policy Review. (2015, August 10). Retrieved from

(ISC)² Study: Workforce Shortfall Due to Hiring Difficulties Despite Rising Salaries, Increased Budgets and High Job Satisfaction Rate. (2015, April 17). Retrieved from

Created December 13, 2017, Updated January 3, 2024