We are depositing, assessing and fabricating test devices built from highly enriched silicon to obtain data for improving the material quality and, ultimately, enabling the fabrication of devices that can exhibit quantum coherence. The highly enriched nature of the material is established via ex situ Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) measurements, an example is shown in Figure 1 for a crystalline film of enriched silicon. These results show the material has less than 1 ppm of 29Si.
For use in quantum information, the high enrichment must also occur in an ultra-clean, crystalline form. We seek to deposit enriched silicon-28 as epilayers with a two-dimensional morphology, lattice matched to commercial silicon substrates with low defect densities. An STM image taken on the surface of a deposited silicon-28 film is shown in Figure 2. The sharp contrast differences are due to steps of a single atomic height and the 2x1 reconstruction typical of the Si(100) surface is faintly visible.
We are working to make devices from enriched substrates and films that are designed to optimize quantum behavior. As part of our material characterization, we are fabricating Schottky diodes, MOSCAP capacitors and Hall bars for measurements of carrier density, mobility, and defect densities. These classical electronic devices are precursors to quantum dot and single electron devices. One method we are developing to pattern nanometer scale features in situ uses hydrogen masks defined with voltage pulses from the STM. We are also pursuing the fabrication of quantum devices (and back-end fabrication) by electron beam lithography and conventional clean room processing.