 An official website of the United States government Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States. Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

# REFERENCES

## Share

This page provides useful references, such as data reduction, among other information.

##### USEFUL FORMULAS

Max Q

Calculation

$$Q = \frac{2{\pi}sin(2\theta)}{\lambda}$$

$$2\theta$$ = angle

$${\lambda}$$ = wavelength

example:

$$Q = \frac{2{\pi}sin(5)}{7.5}$$ = .073 Å-1

Opacity

Calculation

$$\frac{opacity(\lambda_1)}{\lambda_1}$$ = $$\frac{opacity(\lambda_2)}{\lambda_2}$$

opacity = n$$\sigma$$l

This is given for a specific cell optimized for a given $${\lambda}$$

example:

Burgundy is a 5 Å cell

calc. opacity for 6 Å expt.

$$\frac{x}{6 Å}$$ = $$\frac{3.138 Å}{5 Å}$$

x = 3.766 opacity

## Contacts

Created May 8, 2018, Updated March 2, 2020