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Working Group Quick Start Guide

READ-ONLY SITE MATERIALS: Historical voting TWiki site (2015-2020) ARCHIVED from

Working Group Workflow

Essential Working Group Tasks

In the context of the working group activities, working groups will largely be working to perform the following kinds of tasks:

  1. Identify high-level election processes
  2. Identify the essential steps or functions of each process ( Pre-Election Process | Election Process | Post-Election Process )
  3. Identify the rules of operation for each process and function (i.e., what essential principles, requirements, and assertions guide, restrict, and/or control the flow of the process?)
  4. Consider how #1-#3 may be implemented using particular technologies and platforms
  5. Consider what must be done to ensure that #1-#4 are:
    1. Usable
    2. Accessible
    3. Secure
    4. Interoperable
    5. Testable
    6. Certifiable
    7. Without internal contradiction
    8. Well-made according to best practices in hardware, software, data, etc.
    9. Fit for their intended purpose
  6. Use #1-#5 to draft and/or to recommend:
    1. Particular standards
    2. Best practices
    3. Current priorities
    4. Future goals
    5. Essential issues
    6. Essential solutions/strategies
    7. Next steps

Working groups will carry out the above kinds of activities by:

  1. Identifying information they know, do not know, or need to know
  2. Researching and/or creating needed information
  3. Populating the TWiki with relevant information
  4. Meeting in-person or virtually to:
    1. Make plans
    2. Discuss work-in-progress, goals, priorities, and status
    3. Carry out the above working group tasks
  5. Providing necessary work products such as:
    1. Processes
    2. Functions
    3. Logic – principles, requirements, assertions
    4. Standards
    5. Test Methods
    6. Workflows – for development and evaluation of election systems, election system tests, testing laboratories, certifying bodies, accreditation bodies, and end-users.

Working Group Subtasks: Supporting Research and Developmental Activities

Although working group activities will continually involve working toward particular developmental goals over time (such as the creation of a given standards, process models, principles, requirements, assertions, test methods, etc.), a given group may also become engaged in particular tasks which are necessary in order to realize these higher level goals such as:

  1. Performing research to answer specific questions
  2. Validating certain assumptions
  3. Testing certain models
  4. Developing particular content

Members are encouraged to leverage one another's strengths, collaborating to carry out particular activities, so as to facilitate the progress of the whole group.

Populating the TWiki with Knowledge, Plans, Work Products, and Status

As each group’s activities progress, it is important for group members to create and link together ideas within the TWiki website itself making pages for important topics or additional areas for consideration. In addition, as any work products (such as documents, specifications, models, or standards) are made (even as drafts or incremental updates) these should be posted in the TWiki as well so that the TWiki can always reflect both the current state of the group's knowledge as well as the current state of all activities occurring here.

Workflow-specific Areas

The overall layout of the primary  site pages supports this overall development process.

Across the top of each page are buttons or links to the following key areas:

  1. Process-oriented Working Groups – where individuals can develop election-related processes, functions, logic, technology and implementation corresponding to Pre-ElectionElection, and Post-Election phases of election activities
  2. Constituency Working Groups – where individuals can identify the most important implications in particular areas ( UsableAccessibleSecureInteroperableTestable) arising from the Process-oriented Working Groups.

General Development Process

In general, the overall development process will be kicked off by an initial focus on essential processes and functions. This will provide the high-level impetus for all groups to begin working.

Over time groups will begin to consider particular technologies, architectures, scenarios, issues, conflicts, and/or questions.

Role of Subgroups

In order to answer questions, test hypotheses, and resolve issues, individuals and teams will form particular tasks to be carried out by subgroups.

These subgroups are expected to provide actionable inputs to their parent working groups in support of higher-level activities.

Specific Pages Supporting Working Group Workflows

In the end, all groups are expected to form reasonable, reachable goals that result in concrete work products within certain periods of time.

Voting TWiki Archive (2015-2020): read-only, archived wiki site, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)


This page, and related pages, represent archived materials (pages, documents, links, and content) that were produced and/or provided by members of public working groups engaged in collaborative activities to support the development of the Voluntary Voting System Guidelines (VVSG) 2.0. These TWiki activities began in 2015 and continued until early 2020. During that time period, this content was hosted on a Voting TWiki site. That TWiki site was decommissioned in 2020 due to technology migration needs. The TWiki activities that generated this content ceased to operate actively through the TWiki at the time the draft VVSG 2.0 was released, in February of 2020. The historical pages and documents produced there have been archived now in read-only, static form.

  • The archived materials of this TWiki (including pages, documents, links, content) are provided for historical purposes only.
  • They are not actively maintained.
  • They are provided "as is" as a public service.
  • They represent the "work in progress" efforts of a community of volunteer members of public working groups collaborating from late 2015 to February of 2020.
  • These archived materials do not necessarily represent official or peer-reviewed NIST documents nor do they necessarily represent official views or statements of NIST.
  • Unless otherwise stated these materials should be treated as historical, pre-decisional, artifacts of public working group activities only.
  • NIST does not warrant or make any representations regarding the correctness, accuracy, reliability or usefulness of the archived materials.


This wiki was a collaborative website. NIST does not necessarily endorse the views expressed, or concur with the facts presented on these archived TWiki materials. Further, NIST does not endorse any commercial products that may be mentioned in these materials. Archived material on this TWiki site is made available to interested parties for informational and research purposes. Materials were contributed by Participants with the understanding that all contributed material would be publicly available.  Contributions were made by Participants with the understanding that that no copyright or patent right shall be deemed to have been waived by such contribution or disclosure. Any data or information provided is for illustrative purposes only, and does not imply a validation of results by NIST. By selecting external links, users of these materials will be leaving NIST webspace. Links to other websites were provided because they may have information that would be of interest to readers of this TWiki. No inferences should be drawn on account of other sites being referenced, or not referenced, from this page or these materials. There may be other websites or references that are more appropriate for a particular reader's purpose.


Created August 28, 2020, Updated February 5, 2021