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Constituency Groups

READ-ONLY SITE MATERIALS: Historical voting TWiki site (2015-2020) ARCHIVED from


The purpose of the Constituency Groups is to support the development of standards around the most stable aspect of elections possible: the Election Process.

The overall election process can be understood as an overall series of steps or functions that must take place in each essential phase of the overall election itself including actions an election system must support before, during, and after an election.

Organization of standardization in this way recognizes the fact that technologies used for implementing election systems change much more rapidly than do the underlying processes. Thus, as new technologies and implementation strategies rapidly change and new solutions emerge they can be organized to implement existing processes in new ways. To implement an election process is to implement its functions.

As voting standards strive to remain relevant with emerging technologies, this new organization provides a place where all stakeholders can meet to discuss what technological solutions are available to implement election processes in new ways. Novel solutions will introduce new challenges and give birth to new insights regarding how security, usability, accessibility, interoperability, and testing must take place in order to ensure that a given election system technology implementation can fulfill these functions in these emerging contexts in a satisfactory manner.

Working Groups

Constituency working groups have been organized so as to provide a way to formally facilitate these crucial conversations in a nimble fashion.

The groups include:

  1. Cyber Security Public Working Group
  2. Human Factors Public Working Group
  3. Interoperability Public Working Group
  4. Testing Public Working Group

The working group mailing lists are:

  • vvsg-cybersecurity [at] (vvsg-cybersecurity[at]list[dot]nist[dot]gov) - main mailing list for the Cyber Security Working Group
  • vvsg-human-factors [at] (vvsg-human-factors[at]list[dot]nist[dot]gov) - main mailing list for the Human Factors Working Group
  • vvsg-interoperability [at] (vvsg-interoperability[at]list[dot]nist[dot]gov) – main mailing list for the Interoperability Working Group
  • vvsg-testing [at] (vvsg-testing[at]list[dot]nist[dot]gov) - main mailing list for the Testing Working Group

Mailing lists specific to the Common Data Format (CDF) development are:

  • vvsg-cvr [at] (vvsg-cvr[at]list[dot]nist[dot]gov) – for the cast vote records CDF list
  • ovr [at] (ovr[at]list[dot]nist[dot]gov) – for the voter records interchange/online voter registration CDF list
  • voting-methods [at] (voting-methods[at]list[dot]nist[dot]gov) – for the voting methods/models CDF list
  • election-modeling [at] (election-modeling[at]list[dot]nist[dot]gov) – for the election process modeling CDF list
  • election-results [at] (election-results[at]list[dot]nist[dot]gov) – for the election results reporting CDF list

The working groups use Google Groups for managing the email lists. If you have a Gmail address or Google account, you can join a group and post to the mailing list and access the email archives; non-Google users can still post and access the email archives but to join, you must send an email to the group administrator. A Google account permits you to continue using your non-Gmail address but signs you in to Google; for information on how to obtain a Gmail address or Google account, please see

How to Join a Group or Manage your Membership in a Group

If you do not have a Gmail address or Google account, please send an email to the following address and include your name and preferred email address(es) and which group(s) you wish to join:

voting [at] (voting[at]nist[dot]gov)

If you do have a Gmail address or Google account:

  1. Go to the following URL:
  2. Click on the “Browse all” button to find groups to join, and click on the name of each group you wish to join.
  3. Click on the “Join group to post” button and set up your email account preferences. You’re done!

Here is a useful article with further information about Google groups:

How to Read a Group’s Email Archives

Google and non-Google users can read a group’s email archives. Do the following:

  1. Go to the following URL:
  2. Click on the “Browse all” button to find the group whose archive you wish to access.
  3. Click on the name of the group.


Working Group Mailing List Policies

  • No Proprietary Information Exchanged
  • Standing Rules
  • Etiquette

Voting TWiki Archive (2015-2020): read-only, archived wiki site, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)


This page, and related pages, represent archived materials (pages, documents, links, and content) that were produced and/or provided by members of public working groups engaged in collaborative activities to support the development of the Voluntary Voting System Guidelines (VVSG) 2.0. These TWiki activities began in 2015 and continued until early 2020. During that time period, this content was hosted on a Voting TWiki site. That TWiki site was decommissioned in 2020 due to technology migration needs. The TWiki activities that generated this content ceased to operate actively through the TWiki at the time the draft VVSG 2.0 was released, in February of 2020. The historical pages and documents produced there have been archived now in read-only, static form.

  • The archived materials of this TWiki (including pages, documents, links, content) are provided for historical purposes only.
  • They are not actively maintained.
  • They are provided "as is" as a public service.
  • They represent the "work in progress" efforts of a community of volunteer members of public working groups collaborating from late 2015 to February of 2020.
  • These archived materials do not necessarily represent official or peer-reviewed NIST documents nor do they necessarily represent official views or statements of NIST.
  • Unless otherwise stated these materials should be treated as historical, pre-decisional, artifacts of public working group activities only.
  • NIST does not warrant or make any representations regarding the correctness, accuracy, reliability or usefulness of the archived materials.


This wiki was a collaborative website. NIST does not necessarily endorse the views expressed, or concur with the facts presented on these archived TWiki materials. Further, NIST does not endorse any commercial products that may be mentioned in these materials. Archived material on this TWiki site is made available to interested parties for informational and research purposes. Materials were contributed by Participants with the understanding that all contributed material would be publicly available.  Contributions were made by Participants with the understanding that that no copyright or patent right shall be deemed to have been waived by such contribution or disclosure. Any data or information provided is for illustrative purposes only, and does not imply a validation of results by NIST. By selecting external links, users of these materials will be leaving NIST webspace. Links to other websites were provided because they may have information that would be of interest to readers of this TWiki. No inferences should be drawn on account of other sites being referenced, or not referenced, from this page or these materials. There may be other websites or references that are more appropriate for a particular reader's purpose.


Created August 28, 2020, Updated February 5, 2021