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Parcel Hardening for Fire: the Three R’s

Prevent structure and property ignitions with the 3 R’s:
Remove, Reduce, and Relocate fuel.

The preferred mitigation action is to reduce exposures as much as possible. This approach is

  • technically effective (less exposure is less hazard), and
  • more cost effective than exterior structure hardening for flame exposures.


Residents have significant control over the fuels located within their parcel. Exposure reduction can be done through three approaches.

The 3 R’s:

  • Remove fuels completely from the property (most effective) (e.g., no firewood on property)
  • Reduce fuel by decreasing the amount, or replacing items with non-combustible alternatives (e.g., less firewood, smaller storage shed)
  • Relocate fuel further away from homes and structures (e.g., move firewood or storage shed)

If these approaches are not possible, hardening the structure for fire will likely be necessary. Hardening increases the likelihood of structure survivability but may not be as effective as hazard removal and is the least desirable option. Also, hardening is typically the most expensive option.



Fuel removal may be necessary, particularly in high density communities

Created July 6, 2023, Updated August 22, 2023