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Workshop: Measurement Challenges and Metrology for Monitoring CO2 Emissions from Smokestacks

NIST hosted its first workshop titled Measurement Challenges and Metrology for Monitoring CO2 Emissions from Smokestacks held on April 20 and 21, 2015 at the NIST Gaithersburg Campus. The workshop attracted a diverse group of attendees including representatives from several National Metrology Institutes (U.S. Korea, China, Taiwan), the US EPA, Relative Accuracy Testing Audit (RATA) companies, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), stack measurement equipment manufacturers, power plants, and private laboratories that calibrate wind speed instruments and flow meters. The workshop provided an opportunity for this diverse group of stake holders to answer critical questions concerning the current capabilities and accuracy of CO2 flux measurements from power plant smokestacks. We discussed possible shortcomings in existing CO2 flux measurement strategies, new measurement methods with the potential to improve accuracy, and current research activities at NIST to support better CO2 flux measurements. Workshop session topics included: 1) Continuous Emissions Monitoring Equipment (CEMS) and RATA Measurements, 2) Pitot Probe Characterization and Calibration, and 3) NIST Facilities and Flow Measurement Research.

The workshop provided the opportunity to develop international collaborations in advancing greenhouse gas emissions measurement science and disseminating standards in support of improved national greenhouse gas emissions inventories traceable to SI standards. Such traceability is essential for promoting measurement innovation and creating the potential for future international agreements in greenhouse gas emissions. The planning team is anticipating making the workshop a biennial event given the growing international interest in the monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions. A report of the content discussed at the workshop is available at



April 20, 2015
8:45am Registration
9:00am Welcome/Introductions
9:15am James Whetstone (NIST)
Overview of the NIST Greenhouse Gas and Climate Science Measurements Program
CEMS/RATA Measurements
9:45am Toralf Dietz (Sick Engineering Gmbh)
Improving the Accuracy of CEMS by Means of Multipath Ultrasonic Flowmeter
10:15am Break
10:30am Donald Giel (Teledyne)
Practical Experience with CEMS Measurements
11:00am David Elam Jr. (TRC Environmental Corp.)
Overview of ASTM D7036
11:30am Scott Swiggard (Golden Specialty Inc.)
Volumetric Flow Measurements of Stationary Sources: Common Mistakes, Corrective Measures
12:00pm Discussions
12:30pm Lunch
Pitot Probe Calibrations
1:45pm Woong Kang (KRISS)
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Factors Affecting the S-type Pitot Tube Coefficients in GHGs Monitoring
2:15pm Iosif Shinder (NIST)
Wind Speed Measurements of Pitot Tubes
2:45pm Break
3:00pm Eric Harman (CEESI)
Alternate Pitot-Tube Calibration Methodology Using NIST Traceable Mass Flow Standards
3:30pm Hsin-Hung (Kyle) Lee (Industrial Technology Research Institute)
3D Pitot Tube Measurements and Calibration in the Wind Tunnel
4:00pm Discussions
5:00pm Adjourn
April 21, 2015
9:00am Aaron Johnson (NIST)
Scale-Model Smokestack Simulator (SMSS) - A Facility to Study the Uncertainty of CEMS and RATA Flow Measurements
9:30am Liang Zhang (National Institute of Metrology China)
China's Research Facility for Studying CEMS and RATA Flow Measurements
10:00am Rodney Bryant (NIST)
Using the National Fire Research Laboratory (NFRL) as a Test Bed for Traceable CO2 Measurements
10:30am Break
10:45am Keith Gillis (NIST)
Is a Long-Wavelength Acoustic Flow-meter Feasible?
11:15am Discussions
12:00pm Lunch
Lab Tours
1:30-3:45pm Lab Tours
4:00pm Break
4:15pm Discussions
5:00pm Adjourn


Created December 12, 2014, Updated October 31, 2017