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Windstorms and Coastal Inundation

Hurricane Ian made landfall near Cayo Costa, Florida on September 28, 2022 as a Category 4 storm, with maximum sustained winds estimated at 67 m/s (150 mph). Storm surge records were set in several communities, with inundation ​as great as 4.6 m (15 ft) above ground. ​​ ​Hurricane Ian caused​ at least 156 fatalities. ​​Building damage was caused by wind​, wind-driven rain, ​​storm ​surge​ flooding, and  freshwater flooding​. NIST is conducting a research study on Hurricane Ian under the National Windstorm Impact Reduction Program (NWIRP) authority. 
On September 20, 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in southeast Puerto Rico near the town of Yabucoa .  Maria was listed as a strong Category 4 storm, with maximum sustained winds of 249 kilometers per hour (155 miles per hour). The storm tracked across the center of the island, from southeast to northwest, and produced up to 2.7 meters (8.9 feet) of storm surge. The hurricane also dumped greater than 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) of rain over much of the island, with even higher amounts (50-101 centimeters, or 20-40 inches) in some areas, causing hundreds of landslides across Puerto Rico. NIST is conducting an NCST investigation and related research under other authorities.

Tornado, Joplin, Missouri, 2011
The May 22, 2011, Joplin tornado, rated EF–5 on the Enhanced Fujita tornado intensity scale, caused 161 fatalities and more than 1,000 injuries, making it the deadliest single tornado on record in the U.S. since official records were begun in 1950. The damage to the built environment made this the costliest tornado on record as well, with losses approaching $3 billion. The Joplin tornado damaged 553 business structures and nearly 7,500 residential structures; over 3,000 of those residences were heavily damaged or completely destroyed. NIST conducted an NCST investigation.

More Studies:

Photo of damage from 2011 Joplin, Mo, tornado

Homes were leveled with the force of 200 mph winds as a F5 tornado struck the city the night of May 22, 2011.

Credit: Jace Anderson/FEMA
Created November 14, 2016, Updated April 11, 2024