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Search Publications by

John A. Kramar (Fed)

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Displaying 1 - 25 of 66

Dynamic light scattering distributions by any means

May 21, 2021
Natalia Farkas, John A. Kramar
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is an essential technique for nanoparticle size analysis and has been employed extensively for decades, but despite its long history and popularity, the choice of weighting and mean of the size distribution often appears to

Comparison of electrostatic and photon pressure force references at the nanonewton level

May 3, 2021
Gordon Shaw, John A. Kramar, Paul Williams, Matthew Spidell, Richard Mirin, Julian Stirling
This work describes a comparison between nanonewton force references derived from an electrostatic force balance and photon pressure force from calibrated laser optical power in the 1 watt range. The NIST Electrostatic Force Balance (EFB) is used to

Interlaboratory comparison of nanoparticle size measurements between NMIJ and NIST using two different types of dynamic light scattering instruments

August 6, 2019
Kayori Takahashi, John A. Kramar, Natalia Farkas, Keiji Takahata, Ichiko Misumi, Kentaro Sugawara, Satoshi Gonda, Kensei Ehara
The question of how to relate particle sizes measured using a fixed-angle dynamic light scattering (DLS) instrument with those measured using a multi-angle DLS instrument is addressed. A series of nearly monodisperse polystyrene latex (PSL) particles with

Milligram mass metrology using an electrostatic force balance

September 28, 2016
Gordon A. Shaw, Julian Stirling, John A. Kramar, Alexander D. Moses, Patrick J. Abbott, Richard L. Steiner, Andrew D. Koffman, Jon R. Pratt, Zeina J. Kubarych
Although mass is typically defined within the International System of Units (SI) at the Kilogram level, the pending redefinition of the SI provides an opportunity to realize mass at any scale using electrical metrology. We propose the use of an

Nanometer level sampling and control of a scanning electron microscope

June 2, 2015
Bradley N. Damazo, Andras Vladar, Olivier M. Marie-Rose, John A. Kramar
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is developing a specialized, metrology scanning electron microscope (SEM), having a metrology sample stage measured by a 38 picometer resolution, high-bandwidth laser interferometer system. The

Milligram Mass Metrology Using Electrostatics

August 25, 2014
Gordon A. Shaw, John A. Kramar
— Although mass has historically been defined using an artifact standard, other means of realization are possible. One alternative approach employs a precision electromechanical balance, using the SI electrical units to derive a force used to measure the

Reference Materials 8096 and 8097 - The MEMS 5-in-1 RMs: Homogeneous and Stable

May 14, 2014
Janet M. Cassard, Jon C. Geist, John A. Kramar
The NIST Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) 5-in-1 Reference Materials (RMs) were developed to assist users in validating their use of five documentary standard test methods. A Reference Material can be defined as a material whose property values are

Kinematic Modeling and Calibration of a Flexure Based Hexapod Nanopositioner

August 21, 2012
Hongliang Shi, Hai-Jun Su, Nicholas Dagalakis, John A. Kramar
This paper covers the kinematic modeling of a flexure-based, hexapod nanopositioner and a new method of calibration for this type of nanopositioner. This six degrees of freedom tri-stage nanopositioner can generate small displacement, high-resolution

TSOM Method for Semiconductor Metrology

April 18, 2011
Ravikiran Attota, Ronald G. Dixson, John A. Kramar, James E. Potzick, Andras Vladar, Benjamin D. Bunday, Erik Novak, Andrew C. Rudack
Through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) is a new metrology method that achieves 3D nanoscale measurement resolution using conventional optical microscopes; measurement sensitivities are comparable to what is typical using Scatterometry, SEM and

Scanning Probe Microscope Dimensional Metrology at NIST

December 21, 2010
John A. Kramar, Ronald G. Dixson, Ndubuisi G. Orji
Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) dimensional metrology efforts at the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology are reviewed. The main SPM instruments for realizing the International System of Units (SI) are the Molecular Measuring Machine, the


October 19, 2008
Jing Li, Yin-Lin Shen, Jaehwa Jeong, Fredric Scire, John A. Kramar
A compact, two-stage, vertical actuator with built-in sensors has been developed for the Molecular Measuring Machine (M3) and other potential precision instrumentation applications, such as scanning probe microscopy (SPM). In this article, we describe the

Comparison of NIST SI Force Scale to NPL SI Mass Scale

October 19, 2008
Christopher W. Jones, John A. Kramar, Stuart Davidson, Richard Leach, Jon R. Pratt
Small masses in the 1.0 mg to 0.1 mg range were developed and calibrated at NPL with traceability to the IPK. These masses were transported to NIST at Gaithersburg and used as deadweights on the NIST electrostatic force balance, to facilitate a mass-force

Spring constant calibration of AFM cantilevers with a piezosensor transfer standard

September 24, 2007
Eric Langlois, Gordon A. Shaw, John A. Kramar, Jon R. Pratt, Donna C. Hurley
We describe a method to calibrate the spring constants of cantilevers for atomic force microscopy (AFM). The method makes use of a piezosensor comprised of a piezoresistive cantilever and accompanying electronics. The piezosensor was calibrated before use

Instrumentation, Metrology, and Standards for Nanomanufacturing

September 10, 2007
Michael T. Postek, Andras Vladar, John A. Kramar, L A. Stern, John Notte, Sean McVey
Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM) is a new, potentially disruptive technology for nanotechnology and nanomanufacturing. This methodology presents a potentially revolutionary approach to imaging and measurements which has several potential advantages over the

The Helium Ion Microscope: A New Tool for Nanotechnology and Nanomanufacturing

September 1, 2007
Michael T. Postek, Andras Vladar, John A. Kramar, L A. Stern, John Notte, Sean McVey
Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM) is a new, potentially disruptive technology for nanotechnology and nanomanufacturing. This methodology presents a potentially revolutionary approach to imaging and measurements which has several potential advantages over the

A Piezoresistive Cantilever Force Sensor for Direct AFM Force Calibration

April 8, 2007
Jon R. Pratt, John A. Kramar, Gordon A. Shaw, Douglas T. Smith, John M. Moreland
We describe the design, fabrication, and calibration testing of a new piezoresistive cantilever force sensor suitable for the force calibration of atomic force microscopes in a range between tens of nanonewtons to hundreds of micronewtons. The sensor is

Helium Ion Microscopy: A New Technique for Semiconductor Metrology and Nanotechnology

January 1, 2007
Michael T. Postek, Andras Vladar, John A. Kramar, L A. Stern, John Notte, Sean McVey
The Helium Ion Microscope (HIM) offers a new, potentially disruptive technique for nano-metrology. This methodology presents an approach to measurements for nanotechnology and nano-manufacturing which has several potential advantages over the traditional

New reference standards and artifacts for nanoscale physical property characterization

July 1, 2006
Jon R. Pratt, John A. Kramar, Gordon Shaw, Richard Gates, Paul Rice, John M. Moreland
This paper provides an overview of calibration artifacts being developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) that are intended to aid the accurate determination of nanoscale physical properties across a broad range of applications