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Publications

Search Publications by

Raghu N Kacker (Fed)

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Displaying 1 - 25 of 179

Ordered t-way Combinations for Testing State-based Systems

June 13, 2022
Author(s)
D. Richard Kuhn, M S Raunak, Raghu N. Kacker
Fault detection often depends on the specific order of inputs that establish states which eventually lead to a failure. However, beyond basic structural coverage metrics, it is often difficult to determine if code has been exercised sufficiently to ensure

A Pseudo Exhaustive Software Testing Framework for Embedded Digital Devices in Nuclear Power

June 14, 2021
Author(s)
Athira Jayakumar, D. Richard Kuhn, Brandon Simons, Aidan Collins, Smitha Gautham, Richard Hite, Raghu N. Kacker, Abhi Rajagopala, Carl Elks
The major challenge faced by the nuclear industry related to software testing of digital embedded devices is the identification of practical software (SW) testing solutions that provide a strong technical basis and is at the same time effective in

Combinatorial Testing Metrics for Machine Learning

April 12, 2021
Author(s)
Erin Lanus, Laura Freeman, D. Richard Kuhn, Raghu N. Kacker
This short paper defines a combinatorial coverage metric for comparing machine learning (ML) data sets and proposes the differences between data sets as a function of combinatorial coverage. The paper illustrates its utility for evaluating and predicting

Combinatorially XSSing Web Application Firewalls

April 12, 2021
Author(s)
Bernhard Garn, Daniel S. Lang, Manuel Leithner, D. Richard Kuhn, Raghu N. Kacker, Dimitris Simos
Cross-Site scripting (XSS) is a common class of vulnerabilities in the domain of web applications. As it remains prevalent despite continued efforts by practitioners and researchers, site operators often seek to protect their assets using web application

Combinatorial Test Generation for Multiple Input Models with Shared Parameters

March 17, 2021
Author(s)
Chang Rao, Nan Li, Yu Lei, Jin Guo, YaDong Zhang, Raghu N. Kacker, D. Richard Kuhn
Combinatorial testing typically considers a single input model and creates a single test set that achieves t-way coverage. This paper addresses the problem of combinatorial test generation for multiple input models with shared parameters. We formally

Combinatorial Methods for Explainable AI

October 24, 2020
Author(s)
David R. Kuhn, Raghu N. Kacker, Yu Lei, Dimitris Simos
This paper introduces an approach to producing explanations or justifications of decisions made by artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML) systems, using methods derived from fault location in combinatorial testing. We use a conceptually

Effectiveness of dataset reduction in testing machine learning algorithms

August 25, 2020
Author(s)
Raghu N. Kacker, David R. Kuhn
Abstract— Many machine learning algorithms examine large amounts of data to discover insights from hidden patterns. Testing these algorithms can be expensive and time-consuming. There is a need to speed up the testing process, especially in an agile

Operational Measurement Uncertainty and Bayesian Probability Distribution

June 25, 2020
Author(s)
Raghu N. Kacker
The JCGM documents have undermined the operational concept of uncertainty in measurement established by the GUM and restored the pre-GUM practice of stating possible error relative to the true value, supposedly to align with Bayesian interpretation. It is

Input Space Coverage Matters

January 15, 2020
Author(s)
David R. Kuhn, Raghu N. Kacker, Yu Lei, Dimitris Simos
Testing is the most commonly used approach for software assurance, yet it remains as much judgement and art as science. Structural coverage adds some rigor to the process by establishing formally defined criteria for some notion of test completeness, but

Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) for Communications of Mobile Sensor Data

September 10, 2019
Author(s)
Sebastian Barillaro, Sokwoo Rhee, Raghu N. Kacker, Mark L. Badger, David R. Kuhn, Gustavo Escudero
There are multiple options for communication of data to and from mobile sensors. For tracking systems, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is often used for localization and mobile- phone technologies are used for transmission of data. Low-power wide

Monte Carlo studies of bootstrap variability in ROC analysis with data dependency

August 1, 2019
Author(s)
Jin Chu Wu, Alvin F. Martin, Raghu N. Kacker
ROC analysis involving two large datasets is an important method for analyzing statistics of interest for decision making of a classifier in many disciplines. And data dependency due to multiple use of the same subjects exists ubiquitously in order to

Improving MC/DC and Fault Detection Strength Using Combinatorial Testing

July 25, 2019
Author(s)
D. Richard Kuhn, Raghu N. Kacker
Software, in many different fields and tasks, has played a critical role and even replaced humans to improve efficiency and safety. However, catastrophic consequences can be caused by implementation bugs and design defects. MC/DC (Modified Condition

An Approach to T-way Test Sequence Generation With Constraints

April 22, 2019
Author(s)
Raghu N. Kacker, David R. Kuhn
In this paper we address the problem of constraint handling in t-way test sequence generation. We develop a notation for specifying sequencing constraints and present a t-way test sequence generation that handles the constraints specified in this notation

Applying Combinatorial Testing to Large-scale Data Processing at Adobe

April 22, 2019
Author(s)
Raghu N. Kacker, David R. Kuhn, Riley Smith
Adobe offers an analytics product as part of the Marketing Cloud software with which customers can track many details about users across various digital platforms. For the most part, customers define the amount and type of data to track. This high

Measuring Combinatorial Coverage at Adobe

April 22, 2019
Author(s)
Raghu N. Kacker, David R. Kuhn, Riley Smith
Adobe offers an analytics product as part of the Marketing Cloud software with which customers can track many details about users across various digital platforms. For the most part, customers define the amount and type of data to track. In addition

Using Parameter Mapping to Avoid Forbidden Tuples in a Covering Array

April 22, 2019
Author(s)
Raghu N. Kacker, David R. Kuhn, Yu Lei
This paper addresses an optimization problem that occurs when we try to remove from a covering array (CA) the rows that do not satisfy a given set of constraints. That is, how to minimize the number of rows to be removed? The key observation is that the

Browser Fingerprinting using Combinatorial Sequence Testing

April 1, 2019
Author(s)
Bernhard Garn, Dimitris Simos, Stefan Zimmer, D. Richard Kuhn, Raghu N. Kacker
In this paper, we propose an approach for browser fingerprinting using their behavior during the TLS 1.2 handshake with a server. Using combinatorial methods, we created test sets consisting of TLS server-side messages as sequences that are sent to the

A Method Level Test Generation Framework for Debugging Big Data Applications

January 24, 2019
Author(s)
Huadong Feng, Jagan Chandrasekaran, Yu Lei, Raghu N. Kacker, D. Richard Kuhn
When a failure occurs in a big data application, debugging with the original dataset can be difficult due to the large amount of data being processed. This paper introduces a framework for effectively generating method-level tests to facilitate debugging

A Method-Level Test Generation Framework for Debugging Big Data Applications

January 24, 2019
Author(s)
Raghu N. Kacker, David R. Kuhn, Huadong Feng, Yu J. Lei
Big data applications are now widely used to process massive amounts of data we create every day. When a failure occurs in a big data application, debugging at the system-level input can be expensive due to the large amount of data being processed. This

MCDC-Star – An Open-source MC/DC Measurement Tool

September 22, 2018
Author(s)
Raghu N. Kacker, David R. Kuhn, Eric Wong
Applying MC/DC criterion to real-world projects can be expensive due to not only the cost of commercial tools, but also the difficulty of generating test cases to achieve high coverage. To lower the expense from both aspects, this paper presents an easy-to

True value and uncertainty in measurement

September 3, 2018
Author(s)
Raghu N. Kacker
We will discuss the concept of true value and its connection with the uncertainty in measurement as defined in the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), and three subsequent documents from the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology