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Detailed Study of Uncertainties in On-Wafer Transistor Noise-Parameter Measurements



James P. Randa


This paper uses a Monte Carlo simulation program to explore various aspects of uncertainties associated with the measurement of the noise parameters of transistors on wafers. The dependence of the noise-parameter uncertainties on the different input uncertainties is investigated in detail. Other issues that are considered include the effect of probe losses, the importance (or not) of including input terminations with reflection coefficients as near as possible to the edge of the Smith chart, improvements due to inclusion of an input termination with noise temperature well below ambient, and the effect of including a “reverse” measurement. We also briefly consider the case of well-matched amplifiers on wafers.
Technical Note (NIST TN) - 1939
Report Number


noise parameters, on-wafer measurement, simulation, transistor, uncertainty analysis


Randa, J. (2016), Detailed Study of Uncertainties in On-Wafer Transistor Noise-Parameter Measurements, Technical Note (NIST TN), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed May 26, 2024)


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Created October 24, 2016, Updated January 27, 2020