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Nikolai Klimov (Fed)

Dr. Nikolai N. Klimov is an experimental condensed matter physicist and a Project Leader (Nanoscale Fabrication and Photonics), in the Thermodynamic Metrology Group within the Physical Measurement Laboratory (PML). He received his B.S. and M.S. in Physics and Applied Mathematics from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) and Ph.D. in Experimental Condensed Matter Physics from Rutgers University. His expertise is in physics and nanofabrication of semiconductor devices and structures, photonics-based nanoscale sensors and standards, and low-dimensional systems including devices based on 2D atomic crystal materials. After obtaining his Ph.D. Nikolai worked at NIST (Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology / Physical Measurement Laboratory) as a Postdoctoral Researcher on the development of gated graphene-based nanodevices, and exploring graphene’s electrical properties in a real device structures using both magneto-transport and ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurement techniques. Dr. Klimov’s current research is focused on the development of new field-deployable, nanophotonics-based quantum SI sensors and primary standards for temperature, pressure, vacuum, humidity, and radiation dosimetry. Within this research activity, Dr. Klimov has recently pioneered the development of on-chip integrated ultra-high resolution photonic thermometers that surpass the performance of standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs), the best in class resistance temperature sensors used to disseminate the International Temperature Scale of 1990. These pioneering results show the potential of photonic thermometers to serve as a future temperature standard and replace the 150 year-old resistance thermometry. Dr. Klimov currently leads the commercialization of photonic thermometry, a collaborative effort with an industry partner. In addition, to projects related to integrated nanophotonics quantum SI metrology, Dr. Klimov is also developing grating-based devices for next-generation neutron interferometric imaging; strongly-interacting hybrid quantum systems on a chip, in which ensembles of cold atoms and cold molecules are coupled to nanophotonic devices and structures; and topologically-ordered systems for quantum information processing based on lithium niobate platform. Dr. Klimov is a recipient of NIST-ARRA Postdoctoral Fellowship (NIST/UMD) and Distinguished Associate Award (PML, NIST).

Selected Programs/Projects

  • Hybrid (nanophotonics/cold atom/cold molecules) quantum systems
  • Nano and micro grating-based devices for neutron interferometric phase imaging
  • Integrated, nanophotonics-based, quantum SI metrology (photonic thermometry, photonic humidity, vacuum & pressure, photonic dosimetry, photonic AC-DC thermal transfer standard)
  • Chip-scale, topologically-ordered systems for quantum information processing

Selected Publications

  • Single-beam slower and magneto-optical trap using a nano-fabricated grating, D.S. Barker, E. Norrgard, N.N. Klimov, J. Fedchak, J. Scherschligt, S. Eckel, Phys. Rev. A 11, 064023 (2019). 
  • Nuclear-spin dependent parity violation in optical trapped polyatomic molecules, E.B. Norrgard, D.S. Barker, S.P. Eckel, J.A. Fedchak, N.N. Klimov, J. Scherschligt, Nature Comm. Phys. 2, 77 (2019).
  • Review article: Quantum-based vacuum metrology at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, J. Scherschligt, J.A. Fedchak, Z. Ahmed, D.S. Barker, K. Douglass, S. Eckel, E. Hanson, J. Hendricks, N.N. Klimov, T. Purdy, J. Ricker, R. Singh, J. Stone, JVST A 36, 040801 (2018).
  • Challenges to miniaturizing cold atom technology for deployable vacuum metrology, S. Eckel, D. Barker, J.A. Fedchak, N.N. Klimov, E.B. Norrgard, J. Scherschligt; C. Makrides, E. Tiesinga, Metrologia 55(5), S182 (2018). 
  • Towards replacing resistance thermometry with photonic thermometry, N.N. Klimov, T.P. Purdy, Z. Ahmed, Sensors & Actuators A 269, 308-312 (2018).
  • Assessing Radiation Hardness of Silicon Photonic Sensors, Z. Ahmed, L. Cumberland, R. Tosh, N.N. Klimov, I.M. Pazos, R.P. Fitzgerald, Scientific Reports 8, 13007 (2018). 
  • Photonic thermometry: upending 100 year-old paradigm in temperature metrology, Z. Ahmed, N.N. Klimov, T. Purdy, T. Herman, K.O. Douglass, R.P. Fitzgerald, SPEI Proceedings.
  • Development of a new UHV/XHV pressure standard (Cold Atom Vacuum Standard), J.K. Scherschligt, J.A. Fedchak, D.S. Barker, S.P. Eckel, N.N. Klimov, C. Makrides, E. Tiesinga, Metrologia 54, S125-S132 (2017) (a Special Issue Article).
  • Coulomb drag and counterflow Seebeck coefficient in bilayer-graphene double layers J. Hu, D.B. Newell, J. Tian, N.N. Klimov, D.B. Newell, Y.P. Chen, Nano Energy 40, 42-48 (2017).
  • Towards photonics enabled quantum metrology of temperature, pressure and vacuum, Z. Ahmed, N.N. Klimov, J. Hendricks, Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, book chapter (2016).
  • Edge-state transport in graphene p-n junctions in the quantum Hall regime, N.N. Klimov, S.T. Le, J. Yan, P. Agnihotri, E. Comfort, J.U. Lee, D.B. Newell, C.A. Richter, Phys. Rev. B: Rapid Communications 92, 241301 (2015). 
  • On-Chip silicon waveguide Bragg grating photonic temperature sensor, N.N. Klimov, S. Mittal, M. Berger, Z. Ahmed, Optics Letters 40(17), 3934-3936 (2015).
  • Nanoscale interfacial friction and adhesion on supported versus suspended monolayer and multilayer graphene, Z. Deng, N.N. Klimov, S.D. Solares, T. Li, H. Xu, R.J. Cannara, Langmuir 29 (1), 235 (2013).
  • Electro-mechanical properties of graphene drumheads, N.N. Klimov, S. Jung, S. Zhu, T. Li, C.A. Wright, S.D. Solares, D.B. Newell, N.B. Zhitenev, J.A. Stroscio, Science 336, 1557-1561 (2012). 
  • Microscopic polarization in bilayer graphene, G.M. Rutter, S.Y. Jung, N.N. Klimov, D.B. Newell, N.B. Zhitenev, J.A. Stroscio, Nature Physics 7, 649-655 (2011).
  • Evolution of microscopic localization in graphene in a magnetic field: from scattering resonances to quantum dots, S.Y. Jung, G.M. Rutter, N.N. Klimov, D.B. Newell, I. Calizo, A.R. Hight-Walker, N.B. Zhitenev, J.A. Stroscio, Nature Physics 7, 245-251 (2011).
  • Mechanism for puddle formation in graphene, S. Adam, S.Y. Jung, N.N. Klimov, N.B. Zhitenev, J.A. Stroscio, M.D. Stiles, Phys. Rev. B 84, 235421 (2011). 
  • Interaction effects in the conductivity of a two-valley electron system in high-mobility Si inversion layers, N.N. Klimov, D.A. Knyazev, O.E. Omel’yanovskii, V.M. Pudalov, H. Kojima, M.E. Gershenson, Phys. Rev. B 78, 195308 (2008), (Editor’s Suggestion). 
  • Intervalley scattering and weak localization in Si-based two-dimensional structures A.Yu. Kuntsevich, N.N. Klimov, S.A. Tarasenko, N.S. Averkiev, V.M. Pudalov, H. Kojima, M.E. Gershenson, Phys. Rev. B 75, 195330 (2007). 

Patent Applications

  • Photonic dosimeter and process for performing dosimetry, R. Tosh, Z. Ahmed, N.N. Klimov, R. Fitzgerald, U.S. patent application, Pub. No: 2019/0293808.
  • Photonic calorimeter and process for performing calorimetry, R. Tosh, Z. Ahmed, N.N. Klimov, R. Fitzgerald, U.S. patent application, Pub. No: 2019/0293809.
  • Photonic quantum dewpoint sensor, T. Herman, N.N. Klimov, T. Purdy, U.S. provisional patent application (NIST docket # 18-057US1).
  • High-resolution photonic thermometer, N.N. Klimov, K.O. Douglass, Z. Ahmed, U.S. patent application (NIST docket # 17-034us1).
  • Uniaxial counter-propagating monolaser atom trap, S. Eckel, D. Barker, N.N. Klimov, E. Norrgard, J. Fedchak J. Scherschligt, U.S. patent application (NIST docket # 18-050us1).
  • Dynamic neutron, and x-ray transmission grating, K.M. Weigandt, D.S. Hussey, N.N. Klimov. (DN-45 invention disclosure, submitted)
  • Room-temperature, waveguide-integrated photon counting detector with ultra-high dynamic range and near 100% detection efficiency, S.V. Polyakov, N.N. Klimov, I.A. Burenkov. (DN-45 invention disclosure, submitted)
  • Photonic AC/DC voltage converter, N.N. Klimov, J. Hagmann. (DN-45 invention disclosure, submitted)
  • Broadband, high absorption bolometer pixel structure read out using a photonic temperature sensor, N.N. Klimov, N. Tomlin, C. Yung (DN-45 invention disclosure submitted)


Emission Ghost Imaging: reconstruction with data augmentation

Kevin J. Coakley, Heather H. Chen-Mayer, Bruce D. Ravel, Daniel Josell, Nikolai Klimov, Sarah Robinson, Daniel S. Hussey
Ghost Imaging enables 2D reconstruction of an object even though particles transmitted or emitted by the object of interest are detected with a single pixel

Grating magneto-optical traps with complicated level structures

Daniel Barker, Peter Elgee, Ananya Sitaram, Eric Norrgard, Nikolai Klimov, Gretchen K. Campbell, Stephen Eckel
We study the forces and optical pumping within grating magneto-optical traps (MOTs) operating on transitions with non-trivial level structure. In contrast to

Precise Quantum Measurement of Vacuum with Cold Atoms

Daniel Barker, Bishnu Acharya, James A. Fedchak, Nikolai Klimov, Eric Norrgard, Julia Scherschligt, Eite Tiesinga, Stephen Eckel
We describe the cold-atom vacuum standards (CAVS) under development at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The CAVS measures pressure in the

Lambda-enhanced gray molasses in a tetrahedral laser beam geometry

Daniel Barker, Eric Norrgard, Nikolai Klimov, James A. Fedchak, Julia Scherschligt, Stephen Eckel
We report observation of sub-Doppler cooling of lithium using an irregular-tetrahedral laser beam arrangement, which is produced by a nanofabricated diffraction

Patents (2018-Present)

Photonic Thermometer Module Assembly And Performing Photonic Thermometry

NIST Inventors
Nikolai Klimov , Tobias Herman and Zeeshan Ahmed
A photonic thermometer module assembly includes: a sheath; a sheath bottom plug; a sheath top flange; a top sealing flange; a heat exchanger; a photonic thermometer disposed on the heat exchanger such that the photonic thermometer determines a temperature of the sheath; and an optical fiber array in

Photonic Bolometer And Performing Broadband High-Absorption Photonic Bolometry

NIST Inventors
Nikolai Klimov , Nathan A Tomlin and Chris Yung
A photonic bolometer includes: a photonic chip; a weak thermal link; a thermally-isolated member, and the weak thermal link thermally isolates the thermally-isolated member from the photonic chip; a photonic temperature sensor; a chip waveguide in optical communication with the photonic temperature

Photonic Bolometer and Broadband High-Absorption Photonic Bolometry

NIST Inventors
Nikolai Klimov , Nathan A Tomlin and Chris Yung
A photonic bolometer includes: a photonic chip; a weak thermal link; a thermally-isolated member, and the weak thermal link thermally isolates the thermally-isolated member from the photonic chip; a photonic temperature sensor; a chip waveguide in optical communication with the photonic temperature

Photonic Quantum Dew Point Sensor

NIST Inventors
Tobias Herman , Nikolai Klimov and Thomas Purdy
A photonic quantum dew point sensor determines a dew point of an analyte and includes a common substrate; a photonic dew sensor on the common substrate and exposed for direct contact with the analyte; a photonic temperature sensor on the common substrate; an optomechanical temperature sensor on the

Uniaxial Counter-Propagating Monolaser Atom Trap

NIST Inventors
Stephen Eckel , James A. Fedchak , Julia Scherschligt , Daniel Barker , Eric Norrgard and Nikolai Klimov
A uniaxial counter-propagating monolaser atom trap cools and traps atoms with a single a laser beam and includes: an atom slower that slows atoms to form slowed atoms; an optical diffractor including: a first diffraction grating that receives primary light and produces first reflected light; a
Created October 9, 2019, Updated December 8, 2022