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Exposure And Biospecimen Sciences

Photo montage with images of a sea turtle, seabird with spotted turquoise egg, whale, and dolphins.
Credit: AdobeStock

The CSD aids industry, government, and academia in the areas of exposure science research, remediation and regulation, air and water quality monitoring, biospecimen science and preservation, and sustainable manufacturing by advancing measurements and tools for exposure science. These activities cover a wide range of subjects and approaches including identification and quantitation of emergent contaminants and pollutants in air, soil, water, and biota; measurement science and standards for natural resource damage assessment; and assessing and providing measurements and standards for biological responses at the endocrine, metabolic and proteomic level. About 25 CSD personnel are located in Charleston, SC, where they collaborate with scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, the College of Charleston, and the Medical University of South Carolina in the multi-institutional Hollings Marine Laboratory (HML). Here NIST provides the chemical science, informatics, and standards needed to understand links between environmental conditions and human health, along with the health of marine organisms. As well, the CSD, in collaboration with Hawaii Pacific University, maintains the Center for Marine Debris Research (CMDR) that strives to apply modern metrology and best practices to support research on marine plastic pollution.




CSD maintains and manages the NIST Biorepository and Cryogenic Reference Material Production facilities, HML Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Facility, and advanced inorganic and organic mass spectrometry laboratories at HML. Current efforts have evolved from programs that date to the mid-1970s, and NIST has played a leading role in environmental science metrology since that time. The NIST Biorepository is a cryogenic repository (−80 °C and −150 °C) responsible for archival and maintenance of over 150,000 biospecimens, including samples from human livers, sediment, fish, marine mammals, sea turtles, and seabirds, and associated data collected as part of other agency research and monitoring programs. The NIST Biorepository is an important national resource of research materials, for ongoing temporal monitoring of legacy contaminants in regularly collected specimens, the identification of emerging pollutants, and omic-level (endocrine, proteomic, genomic and metabolomic) responses using new analytical and biochemical techniques. The value of the archive is amplified as these collections provide coverage across a long temporal and geographic range and represent one of the most comprehensive collections of any environmental specimen bank in the world. It is also critical to establish and maintain best practice standards from cradle to grave to ensure the biospecimen, and its associated data, is of the highest quality, remains stable, and is reproducible to support critical measurements. By determining pre-analytical variables associated with each step of specimen handling, specimens can and are used for monitoring and research, including retrospective scientific studies.

The CSD employs a wide range of state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation combined with significant competencies in chromatography, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy as applied to targeted and non-targeted analysis with applications to exposure science, endocrinology, proteomics, and metabolomics. In addition, computational and informatics tools for enhanced data analysis have been developed within the Division to improve the identification of unknown compounds, further streamlining the non-targeted screening process as well as machine learning to assist in analysis of large data sets. The CSD produces approximately 260 SRMs covering a wide spectrum of areas in support of the Division’s Exposure Science Program, including in the area of food safety by producing a new series of seafood reference materials to be used for authentication of food products. Additionally, the CSD develops and validates a wide range of measurement technologies, including single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray differential mobility analysis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, for measurements of size distribution, mass concentration, and number concentration of metal-containing nanoparticles in liquid suspension, as well as elemental analysis.

Growth areas for the CSD include providing measurement science and measurement services supporting research and exposure science for per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS). PFAS contamination in US drinking water is a large problem, and the CSD is creating data and analytical tools to aid the Nation’s response to this emerging issue. CSD’s efforts to provide measurement science and services for marine plastic pollution has expanded greatly in the past five years. These efforts align with the broader MML strategic initiative on the Circular Economy. The CSD is also responding to the needs in the fields of proteomics, metabolomics and endocrinology through the production of reference materials and working in collaboration with other agencies and organizations to provide input to best practice in these rapidly emerging fields.

Customer Outreach:

CSD collaborates with and provides support to other agencies’ environmental research and monitoring programs by long-term banking of biological specimens for deferred (i.e., retrospective) biological and chemical analyses. Active programs include the National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank, Seabird Tissue Archival and Monitoring Project, San Francisco Estuary Water Quality Monitoring Program, Biological and Environmental Monitoring and Archival of Sea Turtles. Geographic coverage includes the contiguous States, Alaska, and the U.S. Pacific Islands Region. Primary customers and/or partners include NOAA, USFWS, DoD, San Francisco Estuary Institute, , Alaskan native communities, National Marine Mammal Foundation, Hawaii Pacific University (HPU), University of Hawaii, Mote Marine Laboratory, Pacific Rim Conservation and other marine research organizations. When requested, CSD responds to urgent environmental events, such as mass stranding and unusual mortality events of marine mammals, and natural resource damage assessments, including oil spills (such as the Gulf of Mexico’s Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010). The CSD collaborates with the DoD and EPA through their Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program to address measurement challenges of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS). Through this program, the CSD is aiding with the development of reference materials for aqueous film forming foams (AFFF), improving access and utility of analytical data for the confident discovery and identification of PFAS in environmental matrices, and enhancing analytical methodologies to differentiate and quantify PFAS sources in complex environmental samples. In the area of marine plastic pollution, the CSD works in very close collaboration with other NIST laboratories, EPA, NOAA, FDA, as well as international entities, industry (e.g., Chevron-Phillips) and non-profits to develop metrological best practices for this emerging field. In the omics fields, NIST works closely with the CDC, NIH, NOAA, and other organizations.

Achievements and Impact

The NIST Biorepository collection provides a unique and important national resource of research materials that are used to document geographic and temporal trends in emerging and legacy pollutants, assess organism or environmental health and identify disease states through the application of future new analytical and biochemical techniques. In conjunction, the Cryogenic Reference Material Production Facility is being utilized to assess the efficacy of generating rapid-response custom reference materials for use in instances where current reference materials do not exist but are required. The CSD’s reference material program supporting exposure sciences underpins chemical measurements for other federal agencies (including CDC, NIH, and DoD) and state public health laboratories by providing human materials used for method validation and method development. Efforts to advance analytical capabilities have been directed to the development of high-resolution mass spectrometry for non-targeted screening and identification of emerging contaminants in environmental samples.

Technology and Knowledge Transfer

The CSD delivers measurement services through the NIST Biorepository and the production of SRMs, the administration of quality assurance programs, and through research collaborations with academia and other agency partners. CSD in collaboration with HPU provides technology transfer to graduate students and undergraduate students studying marine plastic pollution. Likewise, the CSD provides research opportunities to undergraduate students (NSF REU, NOAA Hollings Scholar, NIST SURF programs), graduate students enrolled in local, US and international universities, and post docs through the NIST NRC post doc program. The CSD is also active in international societies, working groups and with other agencies providing best practice guidelines in the areas of biobanking, metabolomics, PFAS, non-targeted analysis, and marine plastic pollution. Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed for compounds of emerging concern, such as persistent organic pollutants), chlorinated aromatic compounds, pesticides, brominated flame retardants (BFRs), plasticizers, hormones and PFAS.

Reference Materials

SRM/RM Number



Oyster Tissue


Estuarine Sediment


Great Lakes Sediment


Organics in Marine Sediment


New York/New Jersey Waterway Sediment


Organics in Whale Blubber


Lake Superior Fish Tissue


Lake Michigan Fish Tissue


Metabolites in Frozen Human Plasma


Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum (Freeze-Dried)


Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum (Freeze-Dried)


Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis)


Organic Contaminants in House Dust


Trace Elements in Soil Containing Lead from Paint (Nominal 500 mg/kg Lead)


Inorganics in Marine Sediment


San Joaquin Soil Baseline Trace Element Concentrations


Domestic Sludge


Organics in Freeze-Dried Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis)


Trace Elements and Methylmercury in Mussel Tissue (Freeze-Dried)


Tissue Engineering Reference Scaffolds for Cell Culture


Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids and Perfluorooctane Sulfonamide in Methanol


Perfluorinated Sulfonic Acids in Methanol


PFAS in Aqueous Film-Forming Foams (AFFF) Formulation I


PFAS in Aqueous Film-Forming Foams (AFFF) Formulation II


PFAS in Aqueous Film-Forming Foams (AFFF) Formulation III


PFAS in Aqueous Film-Forming Foams (AFFF) Formulation IV


Buffalo River Sediment



1.   Corniuk, R. N., Lynch, J. M., Arendt, M. D., Braun-McNeill, J., Owens, D. W., Valverde, R. A., Kucklick, J. R., and McClellan-Green, P. D., "Using Plasma Vitellogenin in Loggerhead Sea Turtles to Assess Reproductive Maturation and Estrogen-Like Contaminant Exposure," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, (2023).

2.   Kilpatrick, L. E., Bouillon, R., Davis, W. C., Henderson, C. M., Hoofnagle, A. N., Pauwels, S., Vanderschueren, D., Waelkens, E., Wildiers, H., Yen, J. H., and Phinney, K. W., "The influence of proteoforms: assessing the accuracy of total vitamin D-binding protein quantification by proteolysis and LC-MS/MS," Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 61, 78-85 (2023).

3.   Shaw, K. R., Cobb, G. P., Jones, T. T., Lynch, H. W., Liu, J., Cobb, G. P., Klein, D. M., and Lynch, J. M., "Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) Accumulate Heavy Metals Near a Former Skeet Shooting Range in Kailua, O'ahu, Hawai'i," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 42, 1109-1123 (2023).

4.   Bangma, J., Guillette, T. C., Bommarito, P. A., Ng, C., Reiner, J. L., Lindstrom, A. B., and Strynar, M. J., "Understanding the dynamics of physiological changes, protein expression, and PFAS in wildlife," Environment International, 159, (2022).

5.   Hong, S. H., Reiner, J. L., Jang, M., Schuur, S. S., Han, G. M., Kucklick, J. R., and Shim, W. J., "Levels and profiles of perfluorinated alkyl acids in liver tissues of birds with different habitat types and trophic levels from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea," Science of the Total Environment, 806, (2022).

6.   Kucklick, J., Boggs, A., Huncik, K., Moors, A., Davis, E., Ylitalo, G., McConnell, M., Makris, C., and Wells, R. S., "Temporal Trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Sarasota Bay Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)," Frontiers in Marine Science, 9, (2022).

7.   Lippa, K. A., Aristizabal-Henao, J. J., Beger, R. D., Bowden, J. A., Broeckling, C., Beecher, C., Davis, W. C., Dunn, W. B., Flores, R., Goodacre, R., Gouveia, G. J., Harms, A. C., Hartung, T., Jones, C. M., Lewis, M. R., Ntai, I., Percy, A. J., Raftery, D., Schock, T. B., Sun, J. C., Theodoridis, G., Tayyari, F., Torta, F., Ulmer, C. Z., Wilson, I., and Ubhi, B. K., "Reference materials for MS-based untargeted metabolomics and lipidomics: a review by the metabolomics quality assurance and quality control consortium (mQACC)," Metabolomics, 18, (2022).

8.   Savoca, M. S., Kuhn, S., Sun, C. J., Avery-Gomm, S., Choy, C. A., Dudas, S., Hong, S. H., Hyrenbach, K. D., Li, T. H., Ng, C. K. Y., Provencher, J. F., and Lynch, J. M., "Towards a North Pacific Ocean long-term monitoring program for plastic pollution: A review and recommendations for plastic ingestion bioindicators," Environmental Pollution, 310, (2022).

9.   Banerjee, S. M., Stoll, J. A., Allen, C. D., Lynch, J. M., Harris, H. S., Kenyon, L., Connon, R. E., Sterling, E. J., Naro-Maciel, E., McFadden, K., Lamont, M. M., Benge, J., Fernandez, N. B., Seminoff, J. A., Benson, S. R., Lewison, R. L., Eguchi, T., Summers, T. M., Hapdei, J. R., Rice, M. R., Martin, S., Jones, T. T., Dutton, P. H., Balazs, G. H., and Komoroske, L. M., "Species and population specific gene expression in blood transcriptomes of marine turtles," Bmc Genomics, 22, (2021).

    10.   Bangma, J. T., Reiner, J., Fry, R. C., Manuck, T., McCord, J., and Strynar, M. J., "Identification of an Analytical Method Interference for Perfluorobutanoic Acid in Biological Samples," Environmental Science & Technology Letters, 8 , 1085-1090 (2021).

    11.   Hyrenbach, K. D., McGinnis, Z., Page, K., Rapp, D., Horgen, F. D., and Lynch, J. M., "Assessment of plastic ingestion by pole-caught pelagic predatory fish from O'ahu, Hawai'i," Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 31, 408-419 (2021).

    12.   Khudyakov, J. I., Treat, M. D., Shanafelt, M. C., Deyarmin, J. S., Neely, B. A., and van Breukelen, F., "Liver proteome response to torpor in a basoendothermic mammal, Tenrec ecaudatus, provides insights into the evolution of homeothermy," American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 321, R614-R624 (2021).

    13.   Luche, G. D., Boggs, A. S. P., Kucklick, J. R., Hawker, D. W., Wisse, J. H., and Nash, S. B., "Steroid hormone profiles and body conditions of migrating male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae)," General and Comparative Endocrinology, 313, (2021).

    14.   Mahynski, N. A., Ragland, J. M., Schuur, S. S., Pugh, R., and Shen, V. K., "Seabird Tissue Archival and Monitoring Project (STAMP) Data from 1999-2010," Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, 126, 1-7 (2021).

    15.   Renaguli, A., Fernando, S., Holsen, T. M., Hopke, P. K., Adams, D. H., Balazs, G. H., Jones, T. T., Work, T. M., Lynch, J. M., and Crimmins, B. S., "Characterization of Halogenated Organic Compounds in Pelagic Sharks and Sea Turtles Using a Nontargeted Approach," Environ. Sci. Technol., 55, 16390-16401 (2021).

    16.   Rodowa, A. E. and Reiner, J. L., "Utilization of a NIST SRM: a case study for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in NIST SRM 1957 organic contaminants in non-fortified human serum," Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 413, 2295-2301 (2021).

    17.   Shaw, K. R., Lynch, J. M., Balazs, G. H., Jones, T. T., Pawloski, J., Rice, M. R., French, A. D., Liu, J., Cobb, G. P., and Klein, D. M., "Trace Element Concentrations in Blood and Scute Tissues from Wild and Captive Hawaiian Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas)," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 40, 208-218 (2021).

    18.   Wood, C., Balazs, G. H., Rice, M., Work, T. M., Jones, T. T., Sterling, E., Summers, T. M., Brooker, J., Kurpita, L., King, C. S., and Lynch, J. M., "Sea turtles across the North Pacific are exposed to perfluoroalkyl substances," Environmental Pollution, 279, (2021).

    19.   Ellisor, D. L., Davis, W. C., and Pugh, R. S., "Spiking and homogenization of biological matrices for production of reference materials using cryogenic processes," Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 412, 5447-5451 (2020).

    20.   Luche, G. D., Boggs, A. S. P., Kucklick, J. R., Gross, J., Hawker, D. W., and Nash, S. B., "Androstenedione and testosterone but not progesterone are potential biomarkers of pregnancy in Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) approaching parturition," Scientific Reports, 10, (2020).

    21.   Townsend, K., Ness, J., Hoguet, J., Stacy, N. I., Komoroske, L. M., and Lynch, J. M., "Testing the Stability of Plasma Protein and Whole Blood RNA in Archived Blood of Loggerhead Sea Turtles,Caretta caretta," Biopreservation and Biobanking, 18, 358-366 (2020).

    22.   Backer, L. C., Bolton, B., Litz, J. A., Trevillian, J., Kieszak, S., and Kucklick, J., "Environmental contaminants in coastal populations: Comparisons with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and resident dolphins," Science of the Total Environment, 696, (2019).

    23.   Bangma, J. T., Ragland, J. M., Rainwater, T. R., Bowden, J. A., Gibbons, J. W., and Reiner, J. L., "Perfluoroalkyl substances in diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) in coastal South Carolina," Chemosphere, 215, 305-312 (2019).

    24.   Boggs, A. S. P., Ragland, J. M., Zolman, E. S., Schock, T. B., Morey, J. S., Galligan, T. M., Luche, G. D., Balmer, B. C., Wells, R. S., Kucklick, J. R., and Schwacke, L. H., "Remote blubber sampling paired with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for steroidal endocrinology in free -ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)," General and Comparative Endocrinology, 281, 164-172 (2019).

    25.   Dietz, R., Letcher, R. J., Desforges, J. P., Eulaers, I., Sonne, C., Wilson, S., Andersen-Ranberg, E., Basu, N., Barst, B. D., Bustnes, J. O., Bytingsvik, J., Ciesielski, T. M., Drevnick, P. E., Gabrielsen, G., Haarr, A., Hylland, K., Jenssen, B. M., Levin, M., McKinney, M. A., Norregaard, R. D., Pedersen, K. E., Provencher, J., Styrishave, B., Tartu, S., Aars, J., Ackerman, J. T., Rosing-Asvid, A., Barrett, R., Bignert, A., Borns, E. W., Branigan, M., Braune, B., Bryan, C. E., Dam, M., Eagles-Smith, C. A., Evans, M., Evans, T. J., Fisk, A. T., Gamberg, M., Gustavson, K., Hartman, C. A., Helander, B., Herzog, M. P., Hoekstra, P. F., Houde, M., Hoydal, K., Jackson, A. K., Kucklick, J., Lie, E., Loseto, L., Mallory, M. L., Miljeteig, C., Mosbech, A., Muir, D. C. G., Nielsen, S. T., Peacock, E., Pedro, S., Peterson, S. H., Polder, A., Riget, F. F., Roach, P., Saunes, H., Sinding, M. H. S., Skaare, J. U., Sondergaard, J., Stenson, G., Stern, G., Treu, G., Schuur, S. S., and Vikingsson, G., "Current state of knowledge on biological effects from contaminants on arctic wildlife and fish," Science of the Total Environment, 696, (2019).

    26.   Gove, J. M., Whitney, J. L., McManus, M. A., Lecky, J., Carvalho, F. C., Lynch, J. M., Li, J. W., Neubauer, P., Smith, K. A., Phipps, J. E., Kobayashi, D. R., Balagso, K. B., Contreras, E. A., Manuel, M. E., Merrifield, M. A., Polovina, J. J., Asner, G. P., Maynard, J. A., and Williams, G. J., "Prey-size plastics are invading larval fish nurseries," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116, 24143-24149 (2019).

    27.   Luche, G. D., Nash, S. B., Kucklick, J. R., Mingramm, F. J., and Boggs, A. S. P., "Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of steroid hormone profiles in blubber from stranded humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae)," Conservation Physiology, 7, (2019).

    28.   Palmer, K., Bangma, J. T., Reiner, J. L., Bonde, R. K., Korte, J. E., Boggs, A. S. P., and Bowden, J. A., "Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in plasma of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus)," Marine Pollution Bulletin, 140, 610-615 (2019).

    29.   Place, B. and Reiner, J., "Reference Materials for the Quality Assurance and Quality Control of the Measurements of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances," Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 257, (2019).

    30.   Saito, M. A., Bertrand, E. M., Duffy, M. E., Gaylord, D. A., Held, N. A., Hervey, W. J., Hettich, R. L., Jagtap, P. D., Janech, M. G., Kinkade, D. B., Leary, D. H., McIlvin, M. R., Moore, E. K., Morris, R. M., Neely, B. A., Nunn, B. L., Saunders, J. K., Shepherd, A. I., Symmonds, N. I., and Walsh, D. A., "Progress and Challenges in Ocean Metaproteomics and Proposed Best Practices for Data Sharing," Journal of Proteome Research, 18, 1461-1476 (2019).

    31.   Clukey, K. E., Lepczyk, C. A., Balazs, G. H., Work, T. M., Li, Q. X., Bachman, M. J., and Lynch, J. M., "Persistent organic pollutants in fat of three species of Pacific pelagic longline caught sea turtles: Accumulation in relation to ingested plastic marine debris," Science of the Total Environment, 610, 402-411 (2018).

    32.   Hart, L. B., Beckingham, B., Wells, R. S., Flagg, M. A., Wischusen, K., Moors, A., Kucklick, J., Pisarski, E., and Wirth, E., "Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) From Sarasota Bay, FL, USA," Geohealth,  2, 313-326 (2018).

    33.   Jung, M. R., Balazs, G. H., Work, T. M., Jones, T. T., Orski, S. V., Rodriguez, C. V., Beers, K. L., Brignac, K. C., Hyrenbach, K. D., Jensen, B. A., and Lynch, J. M., "Polymer Identification of Plastic Debris Ingested by Pelagic-Phase Sea Turtles in the Central Pacific," Environ. Sci. Technol., 52, 11535-11544 (2018).

    34.   Jung, M. R., Horgen, F. D., Orski, S. V., Rodriguez, C. V., Beers, K. L., Balazs, G. H., Jones, T. T., Work, T. M., Brignac, K. C., Royer, S. J., Hyrenbach, K. D., Jensen, B. A., and Lynch, J. M., "Validation of ATR FT-IR to identify polymers of plastic marine debris, including those ingested by marine organisms," Marine Pollution Bulletin, 127, 704-716 (2018).

    35.   Lynch, J. M., "Quantities of Marine Debris Ingested by Sea Turtles: Global Meta-Analysis Highlights Need for Standardized Data Reporting Methods and Reveals Relative Risk," Environ. Sci. Technol., 52, 12026-12038 (2018).

    36.   Lynch, J. M., Ragland, J. M., Reagen, W. K., Wolf, S. T., Malinsky, M. D., Ellisor, M. B., Moors, A. J., Pugh, R. S., and Reiner, J. L., "Feasibility of using the National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank for retrospective exploratory studies of perfluorinated alkyl acids," Science of the Total Environment, 624, 781-789 (2018).

    37.   Neely, M. G., Morey, J. S., Anderson, P., Balmer, B. C., Ylitalo, G. M., Zolman, E. S., Speakman, T. R., Sinclair, C., Bachman, M. J., Huncik, K., Kucklick, J., Rosel, P. E., Mullin, K. D., Rowles, T. K., Schwacke, L. H., and Van Dolah, F. M., "Skin Transcriptomes of common bottlenose dolphins (& IT;Tursiops truncatus & IT;) from the northern Gulf of Mexico and southeastern US Atlantic coasts," Marine Genomics, 38, 45-58 (2018).

    38.   Stacy, N. I., Lynch, J. M., Arendt, M. D., Avens, L., McNeill, J. B., Cray, C., Day, R. D., Harms, C. A., Lee, A. M., Peden-Adams, M. M., Thorvalson, K., Segars, A., and Norton, T. M., "Chronic debilitation in stranded loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the southeastern United States: Morphometrics and clinicopathological findings," Plos One, 13, (2018).

    39.   Boggs, A. S. P., Schock, T. B., Schwacke, L. H., Galligan, T. M., Morey, J. S., Mcfee, W. E., and Kucklick, J. R., "Rapid and reliable steroid hormone profiling in Tursiops truncatus blubber using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)," Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 409, 5019-5029 (2017).

    40.   Bowden, J. A., Heckert, A., Ulmer, C. Z., Jones, C. M., Koelmel, J. P., Abdullah, L., Ahonen, L., Alnouti, Y., Armando, A. M., Asara, J. M., Bamba, T., Barr, J. R., Bergquist, J., Borchers, C. H., Brandsma, J., Breitkopf, S. B., Cajka, T., Cazenave-Gassiot, A., Checa, A., Cinel, M. A., Colas, R. A., Cremers, S., Dennis, E. A., Evans, J. E., Fauland, A., Fiehn, O., Gardner, M. S., Garrett, T. J., Gotlinger, K. H., Han, J., Huang, Y. Y., Neo, A. H. P., Hyotylainen, T., Izumi, Y., Jiang, H. F., Jiang, H. L., Jiang, J., Kachman, M., Kiyonami, R., Klavins, K., Klose, C., Kofeler, H. C., Kolmert, J., Koal, T., Koster, G., Kuklenyik, Z., Kurland, I. J., Leadley, M., Lin, K., Maddipati, K. R., McDougall, D., Meikle, P. J., Mellett, N. A., Monnin, C., Moseley, M. A., Nandakumar, R., Oresic, M., Patterson, R., Peake, D., Pierce, J. S., Post, M., Postle, A. D., Pugh, R., Qiu, Y. P., Quehenberger, O., Ramrup, P., Rees, J., Rembiesa, B., Reynaud, D., Roth, M. R., Sales, S., Schuhmann, K., Schwartzman, M. L., Serhan, C. N., Shevchenko, A., Somerville, S. E., John-Williams, L. S., Surma, M. A., Takeda, H., Thakare, R., Thompson, J. W., Torta, F., Triebl, A., Trotzmuller, M., Ubhayasekera, S. J. K., Vuckovic, D., Weir, J. M., Welti, R., Wenk, M. R., Wheelock, C. E., Yao, L. B., Yuan, M., Zhao, X. Q. H., and Zhou, S. L., "Harmonizing lipidomics: NIST interlaboratory comparison exercise for lipidomics using SRM 1950-Metabolites in Frozen Human Plasma," Journal of Lipid Research, 58, 2275-2288 (2017).

    41.   Bryan, C. E., Bossart, G. D., Christopher, S. J., Davis, W. C., Kilpatrick, L. E., Mcfee, W. E., and O'Brien, T. X., "Selenium protein identification and profiling by mass spectrometry: A tool to assess progression of cardiomyopathy in a whale model," Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 44, 40-49 (2017).

    42.   Clukey, K. E., Lepczyk, C. A., Balazs, G. H., Work, T. M., and Lynch, J. M., "Investigation of plastic debris ingestion by four species of sea turtles collected as bycatch in pelagic Pacific longline fisheries," Marine Pollution Bulletin, 120, 117-125 (2017).

    43.   Moller, C., Davis, W. C., Thompson, V. R., Mari, F., and DeCaprio, A. P., "Proteomic Analysis of Thiol Modifications and Assessment of Structural Changes in Hemoglobin Induced by the Aniline Metabolites N-Phenylhydroxylamine and Nitrosobenzene," Scientific Reports, 7, (2017).

    44.   Morey, J. S., Huntington, K. A. B., Campbell, M., Clauss, T. M., Goertz, C. E., Hobbs, R. C., Lunardi, D., Moors, A. J., Neely, M. G., Schwacke, L. H., and Van Dolah, F. M., "De novo transcriptome assembly and RNA-Seq expression analysis in blood from beluga Whales of Bristol Bay, AK," Marine Genomics, 35, 77-92 (2017).

    45.   Neely, B. A. and Anderson, P. E., "Complementary Domain Prioritization: A Method to Improve Biologically Relevant Detection in Multi-Omic Data Sets," Proceedings of the 10Th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, Vol 3: Bioinformatics, 68-80 (2017).

    46.   Place, B., Murray, J., and Reiner, J., "Preparation of a solid-phase material for PFAS-impacted water measurements," Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 254, (2017).

    47.   Bost, P. C., Strynar, M. J., Reiner, J. L., Zweigenbaum, J. A., Secoura, P. L., Lindstrom, A. B., and Dye, J. A., "US domestic cats as sentinels for perfluoroalkyl substances: Possible linkages with housing, obesity, and disease," Environmental Research, 151, 145-153 (2016).

    48.   Colabuono, F. I., Pol, S. S. V., Huncik, K. M., Taniguchi, S., Petry, M. V., Kucklick, J. R., and Montone, R. C., "Persistent organic pollutants in blood samples of Southern Giant Petrels (Macronectes giganteus) from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica," Environmental Pollution, 216, 38-45 (2016).

    49.   Reiner, J. L., Becker, P. R., Gribble, M. O., Lynch, J. M., Moors, A. J., Ness, J., Peterson, D., Pugh, R. S., Ragland, T., Rimmer, C., Rhoderick, J., Schantz, M. M., Trevillian, J., and Kucklick, J. R., "Organohalogen Contaminants and Vitamins in Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) Collected During Subsistence Hunts in Alaska," Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 70, 96-105 (2016).

    50.   Vander Pol, S. S., Kucklick, J. R., Lynch, J. M., Pugh, R. S., Ragland, J. M., Reiner, J. L., Trevillian, J., and Schantz, M. M., "Lessons Learned from Monitoring Organic Contaminants in Three Decades of Marine Samples from the Pacific Basin Archived at the USA's Marine Environmental Specimen Bank," Persistent Organic Chemicals in the Environment: Status and Trends in the Pacific Basin Countries Ii: Temporal Trends, 1244, 1-19 (2016).

    51.   Mancia, A., Abelli, L., Kucklick, J. R., Rowles, T. K., Wells, R. S., Balmer, B. C., Hohn, A. A., Baatz, J. E., and Ryan, J. C., "Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)," Marine Genomics, 19, 47-57 (2015).

    52.   Reiner, J. L., Blaine, A. C., Higgins, C. P., Huset, C., Jenkins, T. M., Kwadijk, C. J. A. F., Lange, C. C., Muir, D. C. G., Reagen, W. K., Rich, C., Small, J. M., Strynar, M. J., Washington, J. W., Yoo, H., and Keller, J. M., "Polyfluorinated substances in abiotic standard reference materials," Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 407, 2975-2983 (2015).

    53.   Mancia, A., Ryan, J. C., Van Dolah, F. M., Kucklick, J. R., Rowles, T. K., Wells, R. S., Rosel, P. E., Hohn, A. A., and Schwacke, L. H., "Machine learning approaches to investigate the impact of PCBs on the transcriptome of the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)," Marine Environmental Research, 100, 57-67 (2014).

    54.   Ellisor, D., McLellan, W., Koopman, H., Schwacke, L., Mcfee, W., and Kucklick, J., "The distribution and stratification of persistent organic pollutants and fatty acids in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) blubber," Science of the Total Environment, 463, 581-588 (2013).

    55.   Hoguet, J., Keller, J. M., Reiner, J. L., Kucklick, J. R., Bryan, C. E., Moors, A. J., Pugh, R. S., and Becker, P. R., "Spatial and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Alaska," Science of the Total Environment, 449, 285-294 (2013).

    56.   Phinney, K. W., Ballihaut, G., Bedner, M., Benford, B. S., Camara, J. E., Christopher, S. J., Davis, W. C., Dodder, N. G., Eppe, G., Lang, B. E., Long, S. E., Lowenthal, M. S., Mcgaw, E. A., Murphy, K. E., Nelson, B. C., Prendergast, J. L., Reiner, J. L., Rimmer, C. A., Sander, L. C., Schantz, M. M., Sharpless, K. E., Sniegoski, L. T., Tai, S. S. C., Thomas, J. B., Vetter, T. W., Welch, M. J., Wise, S. A., Wood, L. J., Guthrie, W. F., Hagwood, C. R., Leigh, S. D., Yen, J. H., Zhang, N. F., Chaudhary-Webb, M., Chen, H. P., Fazili, Z., Lavoie, D. J., Mccoy, L. F., Momin, S. S., Paladugula, N., Pendergrast, E. C., Pfeiffer, C. M., Powers, C. D., Rabinowitz, D., Rybak, M. E., Schleicher, R. L., Toombs, B. M. H., Xu, M., Zhang, M., and Castle, A. L., "Development of a Standard Reference Material for Metabolomics Research," Analytical Chemistry, 85, 11732-11738 (2013).

    57.   Simon-Manso, Y., Lowenthal, M. S., Kilpatrick, L. E., Sampson, M. L., Telu, K. H., Rudnick, P. A., Mallard, W. G., Bearden, D. W., Schock, T. B., Tchekhovskoi, D. V., Blonder, N., Yan, X. J., Liang, Y. X., Zheng, Y. F., Wallace, W. E., Neta, P., Phinney, K. W., Remaley, A. T., and Stein, S. E., "Metabolite Profiling of a NIST Standard Reference Material for Human Plasma (SRM 1950): GC-MS, LC-MS, NMR, and Clinical Laboratory Analyses, Libraries, and Web-Based Resources," Analytical Chemistry, 85, 11725-11731 (2013).

    58.   Yordy, J. E., Rossman, S., Ostrom, P. H., Reiner, J. L., Bargnesi, K., Hughes, S., and Elliot, J. D., "Levels of Chlorinated, Brominated, and Perfluorinated Contaminants in Birds of Prey Spanning Multiple Trophic Levels," Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 49, 347-354 (2013).

    59.   Bryan, C. E., Davis, W. C., Mcfee, W. E., Neumann, C. A., Schulte, J., Bossart, G. D., and Christopher, S. J., "Influence of mercury and selenium chemistries on the progression of cardiomyopathy in pygmy sperm whales, Kogia breviceps," Chemosphere,  89, 556-562 (2012).

    60.   Day, R. D., Roseneau, D. G., Vander Pol, S. S., Hobson, K. A., Donard, O. F. X., Pugh, R. S., Moors, A. J., and Becker, P. R., "Regional, temporal, and species patterns of mercury in Alaskan seabird eggs: Mercury sources and cycling or food web effects?," Environmental Pollution, 166, 226-232 (2012).

    61.   Day, R. D., Roseneau, D. G., Berail, S., Hobson, K. A., Donard, O. F. X., Vander Pol, S. S., Pugh, R. S., Moors, A. J., Long, S. E., and Beckert, P. R., "Mercury Stable Isotopes in Seabird Eggs Reflect a Gradient from Terrestrial Geogenic to Oceanic Mercury Reservoirs," Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 5327-5335 (2012).

    62.   Keller, J. M., Ngai, L., McNeill, J. B., Wood, L. D., Stewart, K. R., O'Connell, S. G., and Kucklick, J. R., "Perfluoroalkyl contaminants in plasma of five sea turtle species: Comparisons in concentration and potential health risks," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 31, 1223-1230 (2012).

    63.   Reiner, J. L., O'Connell, S. G., Butt, C. M., Mabury, S. A., Small, J. M., De Silva, A. O., Muir, D. C. G., Delinsky, A. D., Strynar, M. J., Lindstrom, A. B., Reagen, W. K., Malinsky, M., Schafer, S., Kwadijk, C. J. A. F., Schantz, M. M., and Keller, J. M., "Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acid concentrations in biological standard reference materials," Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 404, 2683-2692 (2012).

    64.   Schwacke, L. H., Zolman, E. S., Balmer, B. C., De Guise, S., George, R. C., Hoguet, J., Hohn, A. A., Kucklick, J. R., Lamb, S., Levin, M., Litz, J. A., Mcfee, W. E., Place, N. J., Townsend, F. I., Wells, R. S., and Rowles, T. K., "Anaemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)," Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 279, 48-57 (2012).

    65.   Wilson, R. M., Kucklick, J. R., Balmer, B. C., Wells, R. S., Chanton, J. P., and Nowacek, D. P., "Spatial distribution of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inferred from stable isotopes and priority organic pollutants," Science of the Total Environment, 425, 223-230 (2012).

    66.   Alava, J. J., Keller, J. M., Wyneken, J., Crowder, L., Scott, G., and Kucklick, J. R., "Geographical Variation of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Eggs of Threatened Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta Caretta) from Southeastern United States," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 30, 1677-1688 (2011).

    67.   Ballihaut, G., Kilpatrick, L. E., Kilpatrick, E. L., and Davis, W. C., "Detection and characterization of selenoproteins by tandem mass spectrometry assisted by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: application to human plasma selenoproteins," Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 26 , 383-394 (2011).

    68.   Balmer, B. C., Schwacke, L. H., Wells, R. S., George, R. C., Hoguet, J., Kucklick, J. R., Lane, S. M., Martinez, A., McLellan, W. A., Rosel, P. E., Rowles, T. K., Sparks, K., Speakman, T., Zolman, E. S., and Pabst, D. A., "Relationship between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and ranging patterns in common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from coastal Georgia, USA," Science of the Total Environment, 409, 2094-2101 (2011).

    69.   Kucklick, J., Schwacke, L., Wells, R., Hohn, A., Guichard, A., Yordy, J., Hansen, L., Zolman, E., Wilson, R., Litz, J., Nowacek, D., Rowles, T., Pugh, R., Balmer, B., Sinclair, C., and Rosel, P., "Bottlenose Dolphins as Indicators of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Western North Atlantic Ocean and Northern Gulf of Mexico," Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 4270-4277 (2011).

    70.   Point, D., Sonke, J. E., Day, R. D., Roseneau, D. G., Hobson, K. A., Vander Pol, S. S., Moors, A. J., Pugh, R. S., Donard, O. F. X., and Becker, P. R., "Methylmercury photodegradation influenced by sea-ice cover in Arctic marine ecosystems," Nature Geoscience, 4, 188-194 (2011).

    71.   Ragland, J. M., Arendt, M. D., Kucklick, J. R., and Keller, J. M., "Persistent Organic Pollutants in Blood Plasma of Satellite-Tracked Adult Male Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta Caretta)," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 30, 1549-1556 (2011).

    72.   Reiner, J. L., Phinney, K. W., and Keller, J. M., "Determination of perfluorinated compounds in human plasma and serum Standard Reference Materials using independent analytical methods," Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 401, 2899-2907 (2011).

    73.   Reiner, J. L., O'Connell, S. G., Moors, A. J., Kucklick, J. R., Becker, P. R., and Keller, J. M., "Spatial and Temporal Trends of Perfluorinated Compounds in Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Alaska," Environ. Sci. Technol., 45 , 8129-8136 (2011).

    74.   Stewart, K. R., Keller, J. M., Templeton, R., Kucklick, J. R., and Johnson, C., "Monitoring persistent organic pollutants in leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) confirms maternal transfer," Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62, 1396-1409 (2011).

    75.   Vander Pol, S. S., Hobson, K. A., Becker, P. R., Day, R. D., Ellisor, M. B., Pugh, R. S., and Roseneau, D. G., "Geographic differences in organic contaminants and stable isotopes (delta C-13, delta N-15) in thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) eggs from Alaska," Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 13, 699-705 (2011).

    76.   Yu, L. L., Verdon, C. P., Davis, W. C., Turk, G. C., Caldwell, K. L., Jones, R. L., Buckley, B., and Xie, R. M., "A human urine standard reference material for accurate assessment of arsenic exposure," Analytical Methods, 3, 1107-1115 (2011).

    77.   Kucklick, J. R., Schantz, M. M., Pugh, R. S., Porter, B. J., Poster, D. L., Becker, P. R., Rowles, T. K., Leigh, S., and Wise, S. A., "Marine mammal blubber reference and control materials for use in the determination of halogenated organic compounds and fatty acids," Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 397, 423-432 (2010).

    78.   O'Connell, S. G., Arendt, M., Segars, A., Kimmel, T., Braun-McNeill, J., Avens, L., Schroeder, B., Ngai, L., Kucklick, J. R., and Keller, J. M., "Temporal and Spatial Trends of Perfluorinated Compounds in Juvenile Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta) along the East Coast of the United States," Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 5202-5209 (2010).

    79.   Pedrero, Z., Mounicou, S., Davis, W. C., Monperrus, M., and Amouroux, D., "Investigation of Hg species binding biomolecules in dolphin liver: Use of isotopic tracers for sample treatment optimization," Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, A801 (2010).

    80.   Schock, T. B., Stancyk, D. A., Thibodeaux, L., Burnett, K. G., Burnett, L. E., Boroujerdi, A. F., and Bearden, D. W.,  "Metabolomic analysis of Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, hemolymph following oxidative stress," Metabolomics, 6, 250-262 (2010).

    81.   Schock, T. B., Stancyk, D. A., Thibodeaux, L., Burnett, K. G., Burnett, L. E., Boroujerdi, A. F., and Bearden, D. W.,  "Metabolomic analysis of Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, hemolymph following oxidative stress," Metabolomics, 6, 250-262 (2010).

    82.   Swarthout, R. F., Keller, J. M., Peden-Adams, M., Landry, A. M., Fair, P. A., and Kucklick, J. R., "Organohalogen contaminants in blood of Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) and green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the Gulf of Mexico," Chemosphere, 78, 731-741 (2010).

    83.   Yordy, J. E., Wells, R. S., Balmer, B. C., Schwacke, L. H., Rowles, T. K., and Kucklick, J. R., "Partitioning of Persistent Organic Pollutants between Blubber and Blood of Wild Bottlenose Dolphins: Implications for Biomonitoring and Health," Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 4789-4795 (2010).

    84.   Yordy, J. E., Pabst, D. A., McLellan, W. A., Wells, R. S., Rowles, T. K., and Kucklick, J. R., "Tissue-Specific Distribution and Whole-Body Burden Estimates of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus)," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 29, 1263-1273 (2010).

    85.   Yordy, J. E., Wells, R. S., Balmer, B. C., Schwacke, L. H., Rowles, T. K., and Kucklick, J. R., "Life history as a source of variation for persistent organic pollutant (POP) patterns in a community of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) resident to Sarasota Bay, FL," Science of the Total Environment, 408, 2163-2172 (2010).

    86.   Yordy, J. E., Mollenhauer, M. A. M., Wilson, R. M., Wells, R. S., Hohn, A., Sweeney, J., Schwacke, L. H., Rowles, T. K., Kucklick, J. R., and Peden-Adams, M. M., "Complex Contaminant Exposure in Cetaceans: A Comparative E-Screen Analysis of Bottlenose Dolphin Blubber and Mixtures of Four Persistent Organic Pollutants," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 29, 2143-2153 (2010).

    87.   Boroujerdi, A. F., Vizcaino, M. I., Meyers, A., Pollock, E. C., Huynh, S. L., Schock, T. B., Morris, P. J., and Bearden, D. W., "NMR-based microbial metabolomics and the temperature-dependent coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus," Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 7658-7664 (2009).

    88.   Pol, S. S. V., Becker, P. R., Ellisor, M. B., Moors, A. J., Pugh, R. S., and Roseneau, D. G., "Monitoring organic contaminants in eggs of glaucous and glaucous-winged gulls (Larus hyperboreus and Larus glaucescens) from Alaska," Environmental Pollution, 157, 755-762 (2009).

    89.   Peck, A. M., Pugh, R. S., Moors, A., Ellisor, M. B., Porter, B. J., Becker, P. R., and Kucklick, J. R., "Hexabromocyclododecane in white-sided dolphins: Temporal trend and stereoisomer distribution in tissues," Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 2650-2655 (2008).

    90.   Pugh, R. S., Becker, P. R., Porter, B. J., Ellisor, M. B., Moors, A. J., and Wise, S. A., "Design and applications of the National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST's) environmental specimen banking programs," Cell Preservation Technology, 6, 59-72 (2008).

    91.   Litz, J. A., Garrison, L. P., Fieber, L. A., Martinez, A., Contillo, J. P., and Kucklick, J. R., "Fine-scale spatial variation of persistent organic pollutants in Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Biscayne Bay, Florida," Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 7222-7228 (2007).

    92.   Peck, A. M., Kucklick, J. R., and Schantz, M. M., "Synthetic musk fragrances in environmental standard reference materials," Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 387, 2381-2388 (2007).

    93.   Point, D., Davis, W. C., Christopher, S. J., Ellisor, M. B., Pugh, R. S., Becker, P. R., Donard, O. F. X., Porter, B. J., and Wise, S. A., "Development and application of an ultratrace method for speciation of organotin compounds in cryogenically archived and homogenized biological materials," Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 387, 2343-2355 (2007).

    94.   Poster, D. L., Kucklick, J. R., Schantz, M. M., Porter, B. J., Sander, L. C., and Wise, S. A., "New developments in Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for environmental forensics," Environmental Forensics, 8, 181-191 (2007).

    95.   Stapleton, H. M., Keller, J. M., Schantz, M. M., Kucklick, J. R., Leigh, S. D., and Wise, S. A., "Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental standard reference materials," Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 387, 2365-2379 (2007).

    96.   Vander Pol, S. S., Ellisor, M. B., Pugh, R. S., Becker, P. R., Poster, D. L., Schantz, M. M., Leigh, S. D., Wakeford, B. J., Roseneau, D. G., and Simac, K. S., "Development of a murre (Uria spp.) egg control material," Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 387, 2357-2363 (2007).

    97.   Alava, J. J., Keller, J. M., Kucklick, J. R., Wyneken, J., Crowder, L., and Scott, G. I., "Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and lipid increase during the last stage of embryonic development," Science of the Total Environment, 367, 170-181 (2006).

    98.   Keller, J. M., McClellan-Green, P. D., Kucklick, J. R., Keil, D. E., and Peden-Adams, M. M., "Effects of organochlorine contaminants on loggerhead sea turtle immunity: Comparison of a correlative field study and in vitro exposure experiments," Environmental Health Perspectives, 114, 70-76 (2006).

    99.   Keller, J. M., Kannan, K., Taniyasu, S., Yamashita, N., Day, R. D., Arendt, M. D., Segars, A. L., and Kucklick, J. R., "Perfluorinated compounds in the plasma of loggerhead and Kemp's ridley sea turtles from the southeastern coast of the United States," Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 9101-9108 (2005).

  100.   Tuerk, K. J. S., Kucklick, J. R., Mcfee, W. E., Pugh, R. S., and Becker, P. R., "Factors influencing persistent organic pollutant concentrations in the atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus)," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24, 1079-1087 (2005).

  101.   Tuerk, K. J. S., Kucklick, J. R., Becker, P. R., Stapleton, H. M., and Baker, J. E., "Persistent organic pollutants in two dolphin species with focus on toxaphene and polybrominated diphenyl ethers," Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 692-698 (2005).

  102.   Davis, W. C., Vander Pol, S. S., Schantz, M. M., Long, S. E., Day, R. D., and Christopher, S. J., "An accurate and sensitive method for the determination of methylmercury in biological specimens using GC-ICP-MS with solid phase microextraction," Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 19, 1546-1551 (2004).

  103.   Keller, J. M., Kucklick, J. R., Harms, C. A., and McClellan-Green, P. D., "Organochlorine contaminants in sea turtles: Correlations between whole blood and fat," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 23, 726-738 (2004).

  104.   Keller, J. M., Kucklick, J. R., and McClellan-Green, P. D., "Organochlorine contaminants in loggerhead sea turtle blood: Extraction techniques and distribution among plasma and red blood cells," Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 46, 254-264 (2004).

  105.   Keller, J. M., Kucklick, J. R., Stamper, M. A., Harms, C. A., and McClellan-Green, P. D., "Associations between organochlorine contaminant concentrations and clinical health parameters in loggerhead sea turtles from North Carolina, USA," Environmental Health Perspectives, 112, 1074-1079 (2004).

  106.   Kucklick, J. R., Tuerk, K. J. S., Vander Pol, S. S., Schantz, M. M., and Wise, S. A., "Polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners and toxaphene in selected marine standard reference materials," Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 378, 1147-1151 (2004).

  107.   Struntz, D. J., McLellan, W. A., Dillaman, R. M., Blum, J. E., Kucklick, J. R., and Pabst, D. A., "Blubber development in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)," Journal of Morphology, 259, 7-20 (2004).

  108.   Struntz, W. D. J., Kucklick, J. R., Schantz, M. M., Becker, P. R., Mcfee, W. E., and Stolen, M. K., "Persistent organic pollutants in rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis) sampled during an unusual mass stranding event," Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48, 164-173 (2004).

  109.   Poster, D. L., Kucklick, J. R., Schantz, M. M., Porter, B. J., Leigh, S. D., and Wise, S. A., "Determination of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and chlorinated pesticides in a fish tissue standard reference material," Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 375, 223-241 (2003).

  110.   Christopher, S. J., Vander Pol, S. S., Pugh, R. S., Day, R. D., and Becker, P. R., "Determination of mercury in the eggs of common murres (Uria aalge) for the seabird tissue archival and monitoring project," Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 17, 780-785 (2002).

  111.   Kucklick, J. R., Struntz, W. D. J., Becker, P. R., York, G. W., O'Hara, T. M., and Bohonowych, J. E., "Persistent organochlorine pollutants in ringed seals and polar bears collected from northern Alaska," Science of the Total Environment, 287, 45-59 (2002).

  112.   Kucklick, J. R. and Baker, J. E., "Organochlorines in Lake Superior's food web," Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 1192-1198 (1998).

Created September 11, 2023, Updated October 26, 2023