Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

SRI 6000 Series Programmable Josephson Voltage Standard (PJVS)

Technical Contact: paul.dresselhaus [at] (Paul Dresselhaus)

SRI 6000 Series Programmable Josephson Voltage Standard (PJVS)

The Programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) is an instrument that generates stable, quantum-accurate, direct-current (DC) voltages that are programmable over the range from -10 volts to +10 volts. The quantum accuracy of these voltages is derived from the Josephson Effect such that every superconducting Josephson junction in the PJVS circuit produces a voltage precisely proportional to the frequency of the applied microwave bias signal.

The PJVS with its quantum accurate dc voltages can serve as a primary voltage standard with accuracy of parts in 1010(determined through intercomparison with another quantum voltage standard) or as a stable, programmable source for precision measurements, metrology experiments or calibrations. For example, the PJVS can be used to calibrate Zener references (typically parts in 107 depending on the measurement instruments and Zener noise) as well as the amplitude-dependent gain and linearity of digital voltage meters.

The PJVS is also capable of generating stepwise-approximated waveforms or sine waves with a rise time between voltage steps that is less than 2 microseconds. The AC voltage of the stepwise waveforms do not have quantum accuracy because the transitions between the steps are bias dependent. A differential-sampling measurement technique with an integrating sampling digital voltmeter is used with the step-wise waveforms to calibrate the ac voltage of commercial voltage calibration sources at frequencies up to a few hundred hertz with a typical measurement uncertainty of parts in 107, depending on the phase and amplitude stability of the source.

Specifications Certificate (PDF format)

Standard Configurations:

The prices listed below are for the individual instrument and do not include costs related to the final measurement calibration performed before delivery or post-delivery installation and training.  The related Calibration Service ID for the SRI is 68000S.  To obtain a quote for the instrument and calibration services, please contact Sales and Customer Service by phone at 301-975-2200 or email at srminfo [at] (srminfo[at]nist[dot]gov).

6000eCryo-cooled 10V PJVS, with water-cooled compressor$314,800
6000hCryo-cooled 10V PJVS, with water-cooled compressor, without synthesizer$311,100
6000iCryo-cooled 10V PJVS, with air-cooled compressor$317,400
6000lCryo-cooled 10V PJVS, with air-cooled compressor, without synthesizer$313,700
6000mCryopackaged 10V PJVS chip$53,700
6000nCryopackaged 2V PJVS chip$28,500
6000fCryo-cooled 10V PJVS, with water-cooled compressor (US GSA Authorized)Superceded by SRI 6000e
6000jCryo-cooled 10V PJVS, with air-cooled compressor (US GSA Authorized)Superceded by SRI 6000i
6000oUpgrade existing NIST-installed Liquid-helium-cooled PJVS to Cryocooler with water-cooled compressorSuperseded by 6000h
6000pUpgrade existing NIST-installed Liquid-helium-cooled PJVS to Cryocooler with air-cooled compressorSuperseded by 6000i
6000vCryopackaged 1V ACJVS chipSuperseded by SRI 6011
6000wACJVS SoftwareSuperseded by SRI 6011
6000xLiquid Helium Cryoprobe for ACJVS Superseded by SRI 6011 
6000aLiquid helium-cooled 10V PJVSDiscontinued
6000bLiquid helium-cooled 10V PJVS (US GSA Authorized)Discontinued
6000cLiquid helium-cooled 10V PJVS, with compact microwave synthesizerDiscontinued
6000dLiquid helium-cooled 10V PJVS, without synthesizerDiscontinued
6000gCryo-cooled 10V PJVS, with water-cooled compressor, with compact synthesizerDiscontinued
6000kCryo-cooled 10V PJVS, with air-cooled compressor, with compact synthesizer for travelingDiscontinued
6000qLiquid helium-cooled 10V PJVS without dewarDiscontinued
6000rLiquid helium-cooled 10V PJVS (US GSA Authorized) without dewarDiscontinued
6000sLiquid-helium-cooled 10V PJVS System, compact synthesizer for traveling, without dewarDiscontinued
6000tLiquid-helium-cooled 10V PJVS System, without synthesizer or dewarDiscontinued
6000uLiquid-helium-cooled 10V PJVS System, without  synthesizer, dewar, amplifier, cryoprobe, nanovoltmer, bias electronics and controllerDiscontinued
6000yLow leakage current bias electronics and measurements UPGRADEDiscontinued


Created September 28, 2016, Updated February 12, 2024