Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Workshop on Temperature Measurement of Semiconductor Wafers Using Thermocouples



Kenneth G. Kreider, D P. DeWitt, Benjamin K. Tsai, B Lojek


Temperature measurement is an important parameter in most semiconductor processes. These measurements are necessary in temperature ranges as low as below 0 C in some plasma etch processes, to near room temperature for soft bakes of resists, to 500 C for low temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and sputter deposition, and all the way up to 1150 C for oxidation. Accurate temperature measurements are needed to control the quality of the wafer processing. Although non-contact temperature measurements have advantages on the processing tools, these techniques must be calibrated by running expensive test wafers or by comparison with contact sensors. The thermocouple can be a very useful sensor when calibrated on an international temperature scale such as the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). In this workshop, we will describe how to use thermocouples for measurements of temperature in semiconductor processing and how to achieve the highest accuracy.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 6566
Report Number


process instrumentation, semiconductor processing, surface temperatures, temperature measurement, thermocouples


Kreider, K. , DeWitt, D. , Tsai, B. and Lojek, B. (2001), Workshop on Temperature Measurement of Semiconductor Wafers Using Thermocouples, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (Accessed April 14, 2024)
Created January 1, 2001, Updated October 16, 2008