The NIST Noise Project has developed the theoretical formalism and experimental methods for performing accurate noise-temperature measurements on wafer. This report summarizes the theoretical formulation and describes the design, methods, and results of tests performed to verify our ability to measure on-wafer noise temperature. With known off-waver-noise sources, several different configurations were used to obtain different, known, on-waver noise temperatures. These were then measured, and the results were compared to predictions. Good agreement was found, with a worst-case disagreement of 2.6 percent. An uncertainty analysis of the measurements resulted in an estimated standard uncertainty (1 ς of 1.1 percent or less for most values of noise temperature. The tests also confirm our ability to produce known noise temperature on wafer, with an uncertainty of about 1 percent.
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
and Billinger, R.
On-Wafer Measurements of Noise Temperature, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, [online], https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=27649
(Accessed June 3, 2023)