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On-Wafer Measurements of Noise Temperature



James P. Randa, Robert L. Billinger


The NIST Noise Project has developed the theoretical formalism and experimental methods for performing accurate noise-temperature measurements on wafer. This report summarizes the theoretical formulation and describes the design, methods, and results of tests performed to verify our ability to measure on-wafer noise temperature. With known off-waver-noise sources, several different configurations were used to obtain different, known, on-waver noise temperatures. These were then measured, and the results were compared to predictions. Good agreement was found, with a worst-case disagreement of 2.6 percent. An uncertainty analysis of the measurements resulted in an estimated standard uncertainty (1 ς of 1.1 percent or less for most values of noise temperature. The tests also confirm our ability to produce known noise temperature on wafer, with an uncertainty of about 1 percent.
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement


noise, noise measurement, noise temperature, on-wafer noise, thermal noise


Randa, J. and Billinger, R. (1999), On-Wafer Measurements of Noise Temperature, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, [online], (Accessed July 21, 2024)


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Created December 1, 1999, Updated January 27, 2020