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Search Publications by: Dan Schmidt (Fed)

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Displaying 1 - 25 of 78

Nanoscale Three-Dimensional Imaging of Integrated Circuits Using a Scanning Electron Microscope and Transition-Edge Sensor Spectrometer

April 30, 2024
Nathan Nakamura, Paul Szypryt, Amber Dagel, Bradley Alpert, Douglas Bennett, W.Bertrand (Randy) Doriese, Malcolm Durkin, Joseph Fowler, Dylan Fox, Johnathon Gard, Ryan Goodner, James Zachariah Harris, Gene C. Hilton, Edward Jimenez, Burke Kernen, Kurt Larson, Zachary H. Levine, Daniel McArthur, Kelsey Morgan, Galen O'Neil, Christine Pappas, Carl D. Reintsema, Dan Schmidt, Peter Schulz, Daniel Swetz, Kyle Thompson, Joel Ullom, Leila R. Vale, Courtenay Vaughan, Christopher Walker, Joel Weber, Jason Wheeler
X-ray nanotomography is a powerful tool for the characterization of nanoscale materials and structures, but it is difficult to implement due to the competing requirements of X-ray flux and spot size. Due to this constraint, state-of-the-art nanotomography

Indium Bump Bonding: Advanced Integration Techniques for Low-Temperature Detectors and Readout

April 20, 2024
Tammy Lucas, John Biesecker, W.Bertrand (Randy) Doriese, Shannon Duff, Malcolm Durkin, Richard Lew, Joel Ullom, Michael Vissers, Dan Schmidt
We have examined the influence of bump shape and bonding pressure on low temperature electrical properties of indium bump connections including transition temperature, normal resistance, and superconducting critical current. We describe our test structures

A tabletop x-ray tomography instrument for nanometer-scale imaging: demonstration of the 1,000-element transition-edge sensor subarray

August 1, 2023
Paul Szypryt, Nathan J. Nakamura, Dan Becker, Douglas Bennett, Amber L. Dagel, W.Bertrand (Randy) Doriese, Joseph Fowler, Johnathon Gard, J. Zachariah Harris, Gene C. Hilton, Jozsef Imrek, Edward S. Jimenez, Kurt W. Larson, Zachary H. Levine, John Mates, Daniel McArthur, Luis Miaja Avila, Kelsey Morgan, Galen O'Neil, Nathan Ortiz, Christine G. Pappas, Dan Schmidt, Kyle R. Thompson, Joel Ullom, Leila R. Vale, Michael Vissers, Christopher Walker, Joel Weber, Abigail Wessels, Jason W. Wheeler, Daniel Swetz
We report on the 1,000-element transition-edge sensor (TES) x-ray spectrometer implementation of the TOMographic Circuit Analysis Tool (TOMCAT). TOMCAT combines a high spatial resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) with a highly efficient and

Single Flux Quantum-Based Digital Control of Superconducting Qubits in a Multi-Chip Module

June 24, 2023
Chuanhong Liu, Robert McDermott, Britton Plourde, Andrew Ballard, Jonathan DuBois, Pete Hopkins, David Olaya, John Biesecker, Samuel P. Benz, Dan Schmidt, Joel Ullom
The single flux quantum (SFQ) digital superconducting logic family has been proposed as a practical approach for controlling next-generation superconducting qubit arrays with more favorable scaling properties compared to conventional microwave-based

Proof-of-Principle Experiment for Testing Strong-Field Quantum Electrodynamics with Exotic Atoms: High Precision X-Ray Spectroscopy of Muonic Neon

April 27, 2023
Douglas Bennett, W.Bertrand (Randy) Doriese, Malcolm Durkin, Joseph Fowler, Johnathon Gard, Gene C. Hilton, Kelsey Morgan, Galen O'Neil, Carl D. Reintsema, Dan Schmidt, Daniel Swetz, Joel Ullom, Takuma Okumura
To test the bound-state quantum electrodynamics (BSQED), we have performed high precision x- ray spectroscopy of the 5g→4f and 5f→4d transitions (BSQED contribution of 2.4 eV and 5.2 eV, respectively) of muonic neons in the low-pressure gas phase under the

Symmetric time-division-multiplexed SQUID readout with two-layer switches for future TES observatories

April 4, 2023
Malcolm Durkin, Scott Backhaus, Simon Bandler, James Chervenak, Ed Denison, W.Bertrand (Randy) Doriese, Johnathon Gard, Gene C. Hilton, Richard Lew, Tammy Lucas, Carl D. Reintsema, Dan Schmidt, Stephen Smith, Joel Ullom, Leila R. Vale, Michael Vissers, Nicholas Wakeham
Time-division multiplexing (TDM) of transition-edge-sensor (TES) microcalorimeters is being developed as the readout tech-nology for the Athena X-ray integral field unit (X-IFU) and is under consideration for future TES-bolometer missions like CMB-S4. We

Indium Bump Process for Low-Temperature Detectors and Readout

May 20, 2022
Tammy Lucas, John Biesecker, W.Bertrand (Randy) Doriese, Shannon Duff, Gene C. Hilton, Joel Ullom, Michael Vissers, Dan Schmidt
We describe our indium bump process for low-temperature detectors and associated readout. A titanium nitride under bump metallization layer (UBM) is reactively sputtered onto wiring pads as a diffusion barrier and adhesion layer. Indium is thermally

Measurements of Strong-Interaction Effects in Kaonic-Helium Isotopes at sub-eV Precision with x-ray microcalorimeters

March 18, 2022
Tadashi Hashimoto, S Aikawa, T. Akaishi, M Bazzi, Douglas Bennett, M Berger, D Bosnar, A. D. Butt, C. Curceanu, W.Bertrand (Randy) Doriese, Malcolm Durkin, Y Ezoe, Joseph Fowler, H. Fujioka, Johnathon Gard, C Guaraldo, F.P. Gustafsson, C. Han, R Hayakawa, R. S. Hayano, T Hayashi, J. Hays-Wehle, Gene C. Hilton, T Hiraiwa, M Hiromoto, Y Ichinoge, M Iio, Y Iizawa, M Iliescu, S Ishimoto, Y Ishisaki, K Itahashi, M Iwasaki, Y Ma, T Murakami, T Nishi, H Noda, K Nomura, H Noumi, K Ooi, H Outa, K Piscicchia, Carl D. Reintsema, Y Sada, S Okada, Galen O'Neil, Dan Schmidt, Daniel Swetz, Joel Ullom, S Yamada, J Uhlig
We have measured the 3 d→ 2 p transition x rays of kaonic He 3 and He 4 atoms using superconducting transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeters with an energy resolution better than 6 eV (FWHM). We determined the energies to be 6224.5±0.4 (stat)±0.2 (syst) eV

Toward a New Primary Standardization of Radionuclide Massic Activity Using Microcalorimetry and Quantitative Milligram-Scale Samples

February 24, 2022
Ryan P. Fitzgerald, Bradley Alpert, Dan Becker, Denis E. Bergeron, Richard Essex, Kelsey Morgan, Svetlana Nour, Galen O'Neil, Dan Schmidt, Gordon A. Shaw, Daniel Swetz, R. Michael Verkouteren, Daikang Yan
We present a new paradigm for the primary standardization of radionuclide activity per mass of solution (Bq/g). Two key enabling capabilities are 4π decay-energy spectrometry using chip-scale sub-Kelvin microcalorimeters and direct realization of mass by


November 9, 2021
Ryan P. Fitzgerald, Zeeshan Ahmed, Denis E. Bergeron, Nikolai Klimov, Dan Schmidt, Ronald Tosh
With the recent redefinition of the SI base units in terms of constants of nature, the race is on to maximize achievable precision by developing primary standards based on quantum metrology, thereby to realize the Quantum SI. For the becquerel (Bq) and

Proceedings of the 2nd CREST Nano-Virtual-Labs Joint Workshop on Superconductivity

October 12, 2021
Kent D. Irwin, James A. Beall, W.Bertrand (Randy) Doriese, William Duncan, S. L. Ferreira, Gene C. Hilton, Rob Horansky, John Mates, Nathan A. Tomlin, Galen O'Neil, Carl D. Reintsema, Dan Schmidt, Joel Ullom, Leila R. Vale
Superconductivity is a powerful tool for the detection of electromagnetic radiation and the energy in particle interactions. One leading superconducting detector technology is the superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES), which uses a superconducting

Design of a 3000 pixel transition-edge sensor x-ray spectrometer for microcircuit tomography

August 1, 2021
Paul Szypryt, Douglas Bennett, William J. Boone, Amber L. Dagel, G Dalton, William Doriese, Malcolm Durkin, Joseph Fowler, Edward Garboczi, Jonathon D. Gard, Gene Hilton, Jozsef Imrek, E S. Jimenez, Vincent Y. Kotsubo, K Larson, Zachary H. Levine, John Mates, D McArthur, Kelsey Morgan, Nathan J. Nakamura, Galen O'Neil, Nathan Ortiz, Christine G. Pappas, Carl Reintsema, Dan Schmidt, Daniel Swetz, K R. Thompson, Joel Ullom, C Walker, Joel C. Weber, Abigail Wessels, J W. Wheeler
Feature sizes in integrated circuits have decreased substantially over time, and it has become increasingly difficult to three-dimensionally image these complex circuits after fabrication. This can be important for process development, defect analysis, and

De-excitation dynamics of muonic atoms revealed by high precision spectroscopy of electronic K x rays using a superconducting transition-edge sensor microcalorimeter

July 27, 2021
Douglas Bennett, W.Bertrand (Randy) Doriese, Malcolm Durkin, Joseph Fowler, Johnathon Gard, Gene C. Hilton, Kelsey Morgan, Galen O'Neil, Carl D. Reintsema, Dan Schmidt, Daniel Swetz, Joel Ullom, Toshiyuki Azuma, Pietro Caradonna, I-Huan Chiu, Tadashi Hashimoto, Ryota Hayakawa, Yuto Ichinohe, Paul Indelicato, TadaAki Isobe, Sohtaro Kanda, Daiji Kato, Miho Katsuragawa, Naritoshi Kawamura, Yasushi Kino, Kenya Kubo, Kairi Mine, Yasuhiro Miyake, Kazuhiko Ninomiya, Hirofumi Noda, Shinji Okada, Takuma Okumura, Kenichi Okutsu, Takahito Osawa, Nancy Paul, Kouichiro Shimomura, Patrick Strasser, Hirotaka Suda, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shinichiro Takeda, Soshi Takeshita, Motonobu Tampo, Hideyuki Tatsuno, XiaoMin Tong, Yasuhiro Ueno, Shin Watanabe, Shinya Yamada
We observed electronic K x rays emitted from muonic iron atoms using a superconducting transition-edge-type sensor microcalorimeter. The energy resolution of 5.2 eV in FWHM allowed us to observe the asymmetric broad profile of the electronic characteristic

A Model for Excess Johnson Noise in Superconducting Transition-edge Sensors

May 18, 2021
Abigail Wessels, Kelsey Morgan, Dan Becker, Johnathon Gard, Gene C. Hilton, John Mates, Carl D. Reintsema, Dan Schmidt, Daniel Swetz, Joel Ullom, Leila R. Vale, Douglas Bennett
Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) are two-dimensional superconducting films used to detect energy or power. These detectors are voltage biased in the superconducting transition where the film resistance is both finite and a strong function of temperature

Gamma and Decay Energy Spectroscopy Measurements of Trinitite

April 7, 2021
David Mercer, Katrina Koehler, Mark Croce, Andrew Hoover, Philip Hypes, Stosh Kozimor, Veronika Mocko, Paul Saey, Dan Schmidt, Joel Ullom
We report gamma ray spectroscopy measurements of trinitite samples and analogous samples obtained from detonation sites in Nevada and Semipalatinsk, as well as in situ measurements of topsoil at the Trinity site. We also report the first isotopic

Absolute energies and emission line shapes of the x-ray lines of lanthanide metals

February 1, 2021
Joseph Fowler, Galen O'Neil, Bradley K. Alpert, Douglas Bennett, Edward V. Denison, William Doriese, Gene Hilton, Lawrence T. Hudson, Young I. Joe, Kelsey Morgan, Daniel Schmidt, Daniel Swetz, Csilla I. Szabo-Foster, Joel Ullom
We use an array of transition-edge sensors, cryogenic microcalorimeters with 4 eV energy resolution, to measure the x-ray emission-line profiles of four elements of the lanthanide series: praseodymium, neodymium, terbium, and holmium. The spectrometer also

Broadband high-energy resolution hard x-ray spectroscopy using transition edge sensors at SPring-8

January 12, 2021
Shinya Yamada, Yuto Ichinohe, Hideyuki Tatsuno, Ryota Hayakawa, Hirotaka Suda, Takaya Ohashi, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Tomoya Uruga, Oki Sekizawa, Kiyofumi Nitta, Yoshio Takahashi, Takaaki Itai, Hiroki Suga, Makoto Nagasawa, Masato Tanaka, Minako Kurisu, Tadashi Hashimoto, Douglas Bennett, Edward V. Denison, W.Bertrand (Randy) Doriese, Malcolm Durkin, Joseph Fowler, Galen O'Neil, Kelsey Morgan, Dan Schmidt, Daniel Swetz, Joel Ullom, Leila R. Vale, Shinji Okada, Takuma Okumura, Toshiyuki Azuma, Toru Tamagawa, Tadaaki Isobe, Satoshi Kohjiro, Hirofumi Noda, Keigo Tanaka, Akimichi Taguchi, Yuki Imai, Kosuke Sato, Tasuku Hayashi, Teruhiko Kashiwabara, Kohei Sakata
We have succeeded in operating a transition-edge sensor (TES) spectrometer and evaluating its performance at the SPring-8 synchrotron x-ray light source. The TES spectrometer consists of a 240 pixel National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) TES

Improved plutonium and americium photon branching ratios from microcalorimeter gamma spectroscopy

October 11, 2020
M. D. Yoho, K. E. Koehler, Dan Becker, Douglas Bennett, M. H. Carpenter, M. P. Croce, J. D. Gard, John Mates, D. J. Mercer, Nathan Ortiz, Dan Schmidt, C. M. Smith, Daniel Swetz, A. D. Tollefson, Joel Ullom, Leila R. Vale, Abigail Wessels, D. T. Vo
Photon branching ratios are critical input data for activities such as nuclear materials protection and accounting because they allow material compositions to be extracted from measurements of gamma-ray intensities. Uncertainties in these branching ratios

Development of a transition-edge sensor bilayer process providing new modalities for critical temperature control

September 21, 2020
Joel Weber, Kelsey Morgan, Daikang Yan, Christine Pappas, Abigail Wessels, Galen O'Neil, Douglas Bennett, Gene C. Hilton, Daniel Swetz, Joel Ullom, Dan Schmidt
Transition-edge sensors (TESs) are thermal detectors in which a superconducting film that is electrically biased in the superconducting-to-normal transition is used as a thermometer. In most TESs, the film is a superconductor-normal metal bilayer where the

A transition-edge sensor-based x-ray spectrometer for the study of highly charged ions at the National Institute of Standards and Technology electron beam ion trap

December 16, 2019
Paul Szypryt, Galen C. O'Neil, Endre Takacs, Joseph N. Tan, Sean W. Buechele, Aung Naing, Douglas A. Bennett, William B. Doriese, Malcolm S. Durkin, Joseph W. Fowler, Johnathon D. Gard, Gene C. Hilton, Kelsey M. Morgan, Carl D. Reintsema, Daniel R. Schmidt, Daniel S. Swetz, Joel N. Ullom, Yuri Ralchenko
We report on the design, commissioning, and initial measurements of a Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) x-ray spectrometer for the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Over the past few decades, the NIST

On Low-Energy Tail Distortions in the Detector Response Function of X-Ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometers

November 21, 2019
Galen C. O'Neil, Paul Szypryt, Endre Takacs, Joseph N. Tan, Sean W. Buechele, Aung Naing, Young I. Joe, Daniel S. Swetz, Daniel R. Schmidt, William B. Doriese, Johnathon D. Gard, Carl D. Reintsema, Joel N. Ullom, John S. Villarrubia, Yuri Ralchenko
We use narrow spectral lines from the X-ray spectra of various highly charged ions to measure low-energy tail-like deviations from a Gaussian response function in a microcalorimeter X-ray spectrometer with Au absorbers at energies from 650 to 3320 eV. We

Expanding the Capability of Microwave Multiplexed Readout for Fast Signals in Microcalorimeters

November 11, 2019
Kelsey M. Morgan, Daniel T. Becker, Douglas A. Bennett, Johnathon D. Gard, Jozsef Imrek, John A. Mates, Christine G. Pappas, Carl D. Reintsema, Daniel R. Schmidt, Joel N. Ullom, Joel C. Weber, Abigail L. Wessels, Daniel S. Swetz
Microwave SQUID multiplexing has become a key technology for reading out large arrays of X-ray and gamma-ray microcalorimeters with mux factors of 100 or more. The desire for fast X-ray pulses that accommodate photon counting rates of hundreds or thousands

Soft X-ray spectroscopy with transition-edge sensors at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource beamline 10-1

November 5, 2019
Sang-Jun Lee, Charles Titus, Roberto A. Mori, Michael Baker, Douglas Bennett, Hsiao-Mei Cho, W.Bertrand (Randy) Doriese, Joseph Fowler, Kelly J. Gaffney, Allesandro Gallo, Johnathon Gard, Gene C. Hilton, Hoyoung Jang, Young I. Joe, Christopher Kenney, Jason Knight, Thomas Kroll, Jun-Sik Lee, Dale Li, Donhui Lu, Ronald Marks, Michael Minitti, Kelsey Morgan, Ogasawara Hirohito, Galen O'Neil, Carl D. Reintsema, Dan Schmidt, Dimosthenis Sokaras, Joel Ullom, Tsu-Chien Weng, Christopher Williams, Betty A. Young, Daniel Swetz, Kent D. Irwin, Dennis Nordlund
We present results obtained with a new soft X-ray spectrometer based on transition-edge sensors (TESs) composed of Mo/Cu bilayers coupled to bismuth absorbers. This spectrometer simultaneously provides excellent energy resolution, high detection efficiency

Controlling the thermal conductance of silicon nitride membranes at 100 mK temperatures with patterned metal features

August 2, 2019
Xiaohang Zhang, Shannon M. Duff, Gene C. Hilton, Peter J. Lowell, Kelsey M. Morgan, Daniel R. Schmidt, Joel N. Ullom
Freestanding micromachined membranes are often used for thermal isolation in electronic devices such as photon sensors. The degree of thermal isolation plays an important role in determining device performance, and so the ability to suppress the thermal