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Optical Materials and Detector Characterization for 193 nm and 157 nm Lithography



John H. Burnett, R Gupta


We survey the optical materials and detector characterization issues relevant to 193 nm and 157 nm optical lithography for semiconductor microelectronics fabrication. We discuss the minimum deviation method for determining accurate values for the index of refraction, its dispersion, and its temperature dependence for optical materials in the ultraviolet and the vacuum ultraviolet. We give representative values for calcium fluoride and fused silica near 193 nm and for calcium fluoride near 157 nm. We also discuss methods for determining the transmittanceof optical materials and characterizaing detectors near these wavelengths using a synchrotron radiation source and absolute cryogenic radiometers.
Future Fab International


157 nm, 193 nm, CaF2, calcium, dispersion, fluoride, index of refraction, refractive index, vacuum ultraviolet


Burnett, J. and Gupta, R. (2000), Optical Materials and Detector Characterization for 193 nm and 157 nm Lithography, Future Fab International (Accessed June 22, 2024)


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Created July 1, 2000, Updated February 17, 2017