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Comparison of High- and Low-Voltage X-Ray Mapping of an Electronic Device

Published

Author(s)

John A. Small, David S. Bright

Abstract

In recent years, field-emission gun scanning electron microscopes, FEG-SEMs, with high-brightness electron guns and excellent performance at low electron beam energies (E0 less then or equal to 5 keV) have become readily available. Concurrently the performance of solid-state x-ray detectors such as the Si-Li detector has improved significantly and with the addition of ultra-thin window materials these devices are easily capable of detecting characteristic x-rays with energies as low as 150 eV. In conventional x-ray mapping the energy of the electron-beam is usually 15-25 keV and the maps are acquired with the K, L, and M shell x-ray lines with energies from 1 to 15 keV. At these electron beam energies, the lateral resolution of the x-ray maps is on the order of 1-3 mm. Reducing the electron beam energy to 5 keV or below and utilizing the K, L, and M lines with energies from 400 eV to 4 keV should significantly improve the lateral resolution of the x-ray maps. In this study, x-ray maps were acquired for Si-K x-rays at 1.74 keV and O-K x-ray at 0.53 keV on a Poly Si gate region of a CMOS device. The maps were acquired at a magnification of 70,000 diameters at beam energies of 15 and 5 keV. The 15 keV maps showed little or no variation in intensity corresponding to the device structure. In comparison, the intensity variation in the 5 keV maps correlated well with the Si and SiO2 features in the device. In addition the intensity profiles from the 5 keV maps were used to estimate the effective resolution of the Si and O maps at 160 and 130 nm respectively.
Proceedings Title
Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology, International Conference | | AIP Conference Proceedings #550 Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology 2000: International Conference | AIP
Volume
550
Conference Dates
June 26-29, 2000
Conference Title
AIP Conference Proceedings

Keywords

electron beam, electron probe microanalysis, low-voltage x-rays, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray mapping, x-ray microanalysis

Citation

Small, J. and Bright, D. (2001), Comparison of High- and Low-Voltage X-Ray Mapping of an Electronic Device, Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology, International Conference | | AIP Conference Proceedings #550 Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology 2000: International Conference | AIP (Accessed April 21, 2024)
Created February 1, 2001, Updated February 17, 2017