The Seebeck coefficient is a physical parameter routinely measured to identify the potential thermoelectric performance of a material. However, researchers employ a variety of techniques, conditions, and probe arrangements to measure the Seebeck coefficient, resulting in conflicting materials data. To identify optimal measurement practices and protocols, we have designed and constructed an experimentally flexible high temperature thermoelectric measurement apparatus uniquely capable of in situ comparison of different contact geometries and measurement techniques that are commonly employed in both commercially available and custom developed instrumentation. Our instrumentation measures the Seebeck coefficient (2-probe and 4-probe) in combination with electrical resistivity (4-probe) between 300 K and 1200 K. This apparatus was also designed to realize the accuracy requirements for SRM development and certification.
Instrumentation details, including those pertaining to the listed Specifications/Capabilities and construction guides, can be found in the reference: J. Martin, “Apparatus for the High Temperature Measurements of the Seebeck Coefficient in Thermoelectric Materials,” Review of Scientific Instruments, 83, 065101 (2012).
Using this custom instrumentation, we have completed a comprehensive experimental study establishing recommended measurement practices and protocols, enabling the development of a thermal contact error model to guide researchers in designing improved instrumentation and in developing comprehensive uncertainty limits. These recommendations can be found in the reference: J. Martin, Protocols for the High Temperature Measurement of the Seebeck Coefficient in Thermoelectric Materials, Meas. Sci. and Technol. 24, 085601 (2013).
Please contact Joshua Martin for additional information or for further questions.