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Development of a high-temperature (295–900 K) Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material



Joshua B. Martin, John Lu, Winnie Wong-Ng, Sergiy Krylyuk, Dezhi Wang, Zhifeng Ren


We report the development of a high-temperature (295 K to 900 K) Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material (SRM) to enable instrument validation and interlaboratory data comparison that support the research, development, and production of materials and devices related to thermoelectric (TE) based energy conversion applications. This new SRM (SRM 3452) will complement SRM 3451 Low-Temperature Seebeck Coefficient Standard (10 K to 390 K), released for consumer purchase in 2011. SRM 3452 is a bar-shaped artifact of p-type boron-doped polycrystalline silicon-germanium with a nominal composition of Si80Ge20 and nominal dimensions of 2.5 mm x 2.5 mm x 14.0 mm to accommodate the longer sample requirements in both custom-built and commercial instrumentation. For the SRM 3452 material, we describe the synthesis, anneal-quench procedure, and structural and physical characterization. For the certification measurements, we describe the custom measurement instrumentation, measurement protocols, statistical analysis, the certified Seebeck coefficient values, comprehensive uncertainty budgets, and metrological traceability. Our extensive efforts to identify, reduce, and quantify measurement uncertainties will be emphasized. Together, these two SRMs provide certified reference materials traceable to the International System of Units (SI) for Seebeck coefficient measurements over the temperature range 10 K to 900 K with a broad overlap region (295 K to 390 K).
Journal of Materials Research


thermoelectric, Standard Reference Material, Seebeck coefficient, transport properties, energy conversion, metrology


Martin, J. , Lu, J. , Wong-Ng, W. , Krylyuk, S. , Wang, D. and Ren, Z. (2021), Development of a high-temperature (295–900 K) Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material, Journal of Materials Research, [online],, (Accessed April 18, 2024)
Created September 21, 2021, Updated November 29, 2022