NIST developed a new way to increase the sensitivity and accuracy of the common swab test for COVID-19, critical for understanding and controlling the outbreak. The math-based approach could reduce measurement errors in the test, potentially detecting more asymptomatic carriers of the virus. Read the news story.
One approach to diagnostic testing for COVID-19 involves detecting the RNA (genetic material) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in a nasal swab. Manufacturers of test kits need a way to measure how effective their tests are at detecting this RNA. To help with this, NIST has produced synthetic fragments of SARS-CoV-2 RNA that manufacturers can use to calibrate their instruments and develop quality controls. This research grade test material is safe to handle, as it is composed of RNA fragments, rather than the virus’s full RNA genome. Learn more about this project.
Biological Measurements (cont.)
NIST will research how the diagnostic assay for COVID-19 deployed by the CDC will be affected by mutations in the coronavirus that causes the disease, and potentially identify issues in the test before the virus mutates enough to escape detection.
NIST is co-organizing a pilot study with three other National Metrology Institutes through the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) CCQM Nucleic Acid Working Group. The study will expand measurement capabilities and help standardize the performance of analytical methods used by diagnostic test manufacturers, clinical laboratory-developed tests and international test standardization efforts.
NIST researcher Matt Staymates created high-speed visualizations (see below) illustrating a flow of air when breathing and coughing using home-made face coverings. Read more about the process of creating the video in this blog.
Machine Learning/Artificial Intelligence, Data and Analytics
A multidisciplinary team of NIST experts in natural language processing and data curation and discovery have created tools that allow researchers to get the most from the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19), a collection of tens of thousands of scholarly research articles about coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19.
NIST researchers are leveraging a long-running program that evaluates and advances search engine technologies to spur improvements in searches of the CORD-19 dataset, in partnership with the White House Office of Science and Technology. Read the NIST news article.
A cross-laboratory group is working on ways to apply NIST expertise in privacy, cybersecurity, sensors and other measurement-science fields to meet community challenges in the development and application of contact tracing through apps and other hardware. Learn more.
Read this blog post about the grassroots effort to develop an exposure notification system for pandemics in general, which the scientists hope could be used in at least a limited fashion during the current COVID-19 pandemic.
NIST researchers are exploring the feasibility of using AI to predict key COVID-19 trends.
A NIST software tool known as Forecasting for Immunization Test Suite (FITS) is being applied by CDC to the COVID-19 vaccines that have become available. FITS will be used to test the forecasting capabilities of each state’s Immunization Information Systems (IIS) which are keeping track of all the doses being administered. Read the NIST news article.
A preliminary study by NIST showed that commercial facial recognition algorithms have a range of error rates in in matching digitally applied face masks with photos of the same person without a mask. A more recent study of face recognition technology created after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic showed that some software developers have made demonstrable progress at recognizing masked faces.
A team of NIST researchers plans to design a system to test the release of gases from masks after they have been decontaminated, in coordination with the CDC’s National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory.
NIST scientists are applying their expertise and using existing equipment to create an apparatus that measures how well different fabrics capture aerosol particles to help inform understanding of mask effectiveness. Read the NIST news article.
A team of NIST researchers is designing a research plan to verify the integrity of N95 masks following decontamination with ultraviolet irradiation, using techniques including high-resolution scanning-electron microscopy (SEM).
A NIST engineer developed a spreadsheet tool to estimate the amount of vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) N95 masks would receive during disinfection, to help hospitals determine the best rooms to use for the process. Read the NIST news article.
NIST Boulder is lending an environmental chamber to Colorado State University for use in testing N95 masks.
A NIST researcher created visualizations showing that masks with exhalation valves do not slow the spread of COVID-19. Read the NIST news article.
Our standards experts are helping manufacturers meet relevant standards for production of personal protective equipment.
Manufacturing and Industry
The NIST Manufacturing Extension Partnership has worked with its clients across the country to identify and support manufacturers who can help with supplies required to respond to COVID-19 needs.
The NIST Manufacturing Extension Partnership is awarding CARES Act funding to its national network of centers to help manufacturers respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. Read the news release.
NIST has awarded a total of $50 million in emergency funding to support U.S. manufacturers in their response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Read the news release.
The Manufacturing USA network is awarding funds to existing institutes to support rapid, high-impact projects that help with the nation’s response to the pandemic. Read the news release.
NIST has awarded $8.9 million for high-impact biopharmaceutical manufacturing projects to support the nation’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Read the news release.
NIST has awarded $3.4 million in grants to support high-impact projects for COVID-19 pandemic response to four ManufacturingUSA institutes. Read the news release.
NIST research chemists are working to make widely available reliable test materials and methods to verify the ethanol content in hand sanitizer.
NIST economists will survey small and medium-sized enterprises to document their experiences planning for natural disasters during the COVID-19 pandemic, and share lessons learned with federal partners (e.g., Federal Emergency Management Agency, Economic Development Administration, NOAA, Small Business Administration) and other key stakeholders. Read the news story detailing results of the first survey.
NIST engineers are coordinating with other government agencies to identify opportunities to address reported ventilator shortages through new technologies, rapid assessment, and other options.
NIST researchers are beginning a project to capture data on wireless spectrum occupancy, traffic load, and the number of devices/networks operating during the current period of heavy remote working and operations. The project is designed to develop appropriate scenarios for future testing to enable device developers, manufacturers, and regulators to stress-test systems prior to deployment and to support communication networking that is more resilient to pandemics and other disasters.
NIST researchers are exploring the feasibility of implementing a simple software update to wireless routers or base stations to enable them to function as non-contact respiratory monitors in home and medical environments.
Energy and Environment
NIST engineers are retooling an existing web-based indoor particle exposure modeling tool to address virus outflow, transport, and occupant exposure within buildings. Read the news release.
NIST is working with research partners in academia and other federal agencies to assess the impact of the pandemic response on greenhouse gas emissions from various urban areas.
Pandemic-related technology transfer resources
NIST’s Technology Partnerships Office has created a list of resources for companies and entrepreneurs interested in technology transfer that will support the response to COVID-19.