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Chemistry

From the food we eat and the pharmaceuticals doctors prescribe to the paints and fuel additives we use, the NIST develops the technology, measurement methods and standards to address the needs of the chemical industry.

SOCIAL SPOTLIGHT: JUNE LAU

woman in a blue dress and white sweater stands next to an electron microscope
Credit: R. Wilson/NIST

Closing in on a clear picture: NIST's June Lau, in collaboration with Brookhaven National Lab and Euclid Techlabs, is giving us a freeze-frame look at the smallest parts of our world.

Standard microscopes — like you might find in a high school chemistry class or forensic science lab — focus light through glass to see tiny things. But sometimes scientists need to get a look at things even smaller than the wavelength of light.

That’s where electron microscopes come in, using electrons to interact with the object you are trying to see. But what about super-small objects that are also moving super-fast? These objects show up under the electron microscope with a motion blur, like what our eyes perceive when we put some speed behind a fidget spinner.

The motion blur creates the perception of a shape that, up until now, we assumed was the shape of the object. That’s because most electron microscopes could only see atoms in space, not in time.

Now, June’s team and our collaborators at Brookhaven and Euclid Techlabs have invented a new type of electron microscope that brings time into the equation. They shoot microwaves at an arbitrary frequency through a waveguide, so that only electrons catching onto their desired wave can get through the microscope.

Bottom line — if you control the waves, you control the time frame. It’s a whole new level of photography, capturing atomic-scale still images midmotion.

Follow us on social media for more like this from all across NIST!

International Year of the Periodic Table

The periodic table
Credit: N. Hanacek/NIST

Did you know that 2019 was declared the International Year of the Periodic Table by the United Nations General Assembly? It also happens to be the table's 150th anniversary.

Learn more about how NIST is helping celebrate.

NIST and the Nobel: Dan Shechtman

Illustration portrait of Dan Shechtman (transparent background)
Credit: Alex Fine/NIST
Dan Shechtman received the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovering crystal structures previously unknown to science: quasicrystals.

Quasicrystals have transformed scientists’ understanding of how matter can arrange itself and opened scientists’ minds to a whole new class of materials that can exist. At NIST, Shechtman worked on identifying new materials that could be useful to industry, as part of NIST’s mission under the U.S. Department of Commerce. His study, sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, was designed to develop aluminum-transition metal alloys for aerospace applications. In the process, he made a discovery that revolutionized scientific thinking. 

Learn more about Shechtman's Nobel Prize-winning work.

News and Updates

Industry Impacts

Automotive Refrigerant Design

Traditional auto air conditioning refrigerants have high global warming potentials, but finding better refrigerants with the right properties has been a major

Chemical Manufacturing Process Design

Chemical plants need access to consistent, reliable data to design their products and assess the safety, quality and efficiency of their manufacturing processes

Publications

IFCC working group recommendations for correction of bias caused by non-commutability of a certified reference material used in the calibration hierarchy of an end-user measurement procedure

Author(s)
Johanna Camara, W. Greg Miller, Jeffrey R. Budd, Neil Greenberg, Weykamp Cas, Harald Althaus, Heinz Schimmel, Mauro Panteghini, Vincent Delatour, Ferruccio Ceriotti, Thomas Keller, Douglas Hawkins, Robert Rej, Finlay MacKenzie, Elina van der Hagen, Hubert W. Vesper
Establishing metrological traceability to a matrix-based certified reference material (CRM) that has been validated to be commutable among a group of

Awards