Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Uncertainty Analysis for NIST Noise-Parameter Measurements



James P. Randa


The uncertainty analysis is presented for NIST measurements of noise parameters of amplifiers and transistors, in both connectorized (coaxial) and on-wafer environments. We treat both the X-parameters, which are based on the wave representation of the noise correlation matrix, and the traditional IEEE noise parameters. An overview of the Monte Carlo program used to evaluate the type-B uncertainties is included.
Technical Note (NIST TN) - 1530
Report Number


measurement uncertainty, noise measurement, noise figure, noise parameters, uncertainty


Randa, J. (2008), Uncertainty Analysis for NIST Noise-Parameter Measurements, Technical Note (NIST TN), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed April 17, 2024)
Created March 31, 2008, Updated January 27, 2020