During the last ten years, research in lightpipe radiation thermometry has significantly reduced the uncertainties for temperature measurements in semiconductor processing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has improved the calibration of lightpipe radiation thermometers (LPRTs), the characterization procedures for LPRTs, the in-situ calibration of LPRTs using thin-film thermocouple (TFTC) test wafers, and the application of model-based corrections to improve LPRT spectral radiance temperatures. Collaboration with industry on implementing techniques and ideas established at NIST has led to improvements in temperature measurements in semiconductor processing. LPRTs have been successfully calibrated at NIST for rapid thermal processing (RTP) applications using a sodium heat-pipe blackbody between 700 C and 900 C with an uncertainty of about 0.3 C (k = 1) traceable to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Employing appropriate effective emissivity models, LPRTs have been used to determine the wafer temperature in the NIST RTP Test Bed with an uncertainty of 3.5 C. Using a TFTC wafer for calibration, the LPRT can measure the wafer temperature in the NIST RTP Test Bed with an uncertainty of 2.3 C. Collaborations with industry in characterizing and calibrating LPRTs will be summarized, and future directions for LPRT research will be discussed.
Citation: Journal of Research (NIST JRES) -
Volume: 111 No. 1
NIST Pub Series: Journal of Research (NIST JRES)
Pub Type: NIST Pubs
blackbody, effective emissivity models, heat-pipe blackbody, lightpipe radiation thermometer, radiation thermometer, temperature, thin-film termocouple, traceability, uncertainty