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Search Publications by

Michael A. Lombardi (Fed)

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Displaying 1 - 25 of 135

A Resilient Architecture for the Realization and Distribution of Coordinated Universal Time to Critical Infrastructure Systems in the United States: Methodologies and Recommendations from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

November 3, 2021
Jeffrey Sherman, Ladan Arissian, Roger Brown, Matthew J. Deutch, Elizabeth Donley, Vladislav Gerginov, Judah Levine, Glenn Nelson, Andrew Novick, Bijunath Patla, Tom Parker, Benjamin Stuhl, Jian Yao, William Yates, Michael A. Lombardi, Victor Zhang, Douglas Sutton
The Time and Frequency Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), an agency of the United States Department of Commerce (DOC), was tasked with fulfilling Section 4, Part (i) of the Position, Navigation and Timing (PNT) Executive

SIM Time Scale: 10 years of operation

March 29, 2018
J. M. Lopez, Michael A. Lombardi, E. de Carlos, N. Munoz, C. Ortiz
The Inter-American Metrology System (SIM) is one of the world's five major Regional Metrology Organizations (RMO's). Starting in 2005, the SIM Time and Frequency Metrology Working Group (SIM TFWG) developed a time and frequency comparison network for the

Metrological and legal traceability of time signals

January 30, 2018
Demetrios Matsakis, Judah Levine, Michael A. Lombardi
Metrological traceability requires an unbroken chain of calibrations that relate to a reference, with each calibration having a documented measurement uncertainty. In the field of time and frequency metrology, the desired reference is usually Coordinated

Improving packet synchronization in an NTP server

January 29, 2018
Andrew N. Novick, Michael A. Lombardi, Kevin Franzen, John Clark
A computer or dedicated client can use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to synchronize an internal clock to a server that is synchronized by a 1 pulse-per-second (pps) signal from a national timing laboratory. Measuring an NTP server on a local area network

The effects of the January 2016 UTC offset anomaly on GPS clocks monitored at NIST

January 31, 2017
Jian Yao, Michael A. Lombardi, Andrew N. Novick, Bijunath Patla, Jeffrey A. Sherman, Victor S. Zhang
Errors in the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) offset parameters broadcast by Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites caused many thousands of GPS clocks to be in error by approximately -13 µs on January 25-26, 2016. The erroneous UTC offset information

Accurate, Traceable, and Verifiable Time Synchronization for World Financial Markets

October 7, 2016
Michael A. Lombardi, Andrew N. Novick, George Neville-Neil, Ben Cooke
This paper describes how the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), through a collaboration with Perseus, is providing accurate, traceable, and verifiable time synchronization to stock exchanges in the United States, Europe, and Asia. The

Timekeeping in the Americas

October 1, 2015
Michael A. Lombardi, Jose M. Lopez
Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured

Practical Limitations of NTP Time Transfer

April 12, 2015
Andrew N. Novick, Michael A. Lombardi
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is commonly utilized to synchronize computer clocks in packet-switched, wide area networks (WANs) such as the public Internet. The delay asymmetry in WANs, often due to inconsistent routing and/or bandwidth saturation, is

International Comparisons of Network Time Protocol Servers

December 4, 2014
Michael A. Lombardi, Judah Levine, Jose M. Lopez, Francisco Jimenez, John Bernard, Marina Gertsvolf, Harold Sanchez, Oscar G. Fallas, Liz C. Hernandez Ferero, Ricardo de Carvalho, Mario Fittipaldi, Raul Solis, Franklin Espejo
This paper describes a recently designed system that measures the time transmitted by network time protocol (NTP) servers located in North, Central, and South America. Direct measurements of the time transmitted by each server are obtained by comparing the

A Low-Cost Time Transfer Receiver for Contributions to Coordinated Universal Time

November 6, 2014
Michael A. Lombardi, Andrew N. Novick, Victor S. Zhang
This paper describes a low-cost time transfer receiver that allows timing laboratories, including national metrology institutes and other designated institutions, to contribute data to the computation of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time transfer

Improvements in SIM Time Network and SIM Time Scale Performance

October 10, 2014
Michael A. Lombardi, J. Mauricio Lopez-Romero, Nelida Diaz-Munoz, E. de Carlos-Lopez, Marina Gertsvolf, Ricardo de Carvalho
We report recent results achieved within the Sistema Interamericano de Metrología (SIM) regarding the multinational cooperation program in the field of time and frequency metrology. We discuss the performance of the SIM Time Network (SIMTN) and the SIM

WWVB: A Half Century of Delivering Accurate Frequency and Time by Radio

March 12, 2014
Michael A. Lombardi, Glenn K. Nelson
In commemoration of its 50th anniversary of broadcasting from Fort Collins, Colorado, this paper provides a history of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) radio station WWVB. The narrative describes the evolution of the station, from its

Frequency Measurement

February 3, 2014
Michael A. Lombardi
An overview of frequency metrology, with emphasis on estimating accuracy and stability, oscillator types, and measurement instrumentation. It describes how to measure frequency and the statistics and terminology that are used to report the results. The

Time Measurement

February 3, 2014
Michael A. Lombardi
An overview of time metrology, with emphasis on time interval measurements, and time synchronization. It covers the evolution of clocks and timekeeping, time scales, the fundamentals of time measurement, and the various time transfer technique used to

Automated Control of National Time Standards via the SIM Time Scale

September 27, 2013
Michael A. Lombardi, J. Mauricio Lopez-Romero, Nelida Diaz-Munoz
This paper describes a frequency and time control system developed by the Sistema Interamericano de Metrologia (SIM). Due to limited resources, some SIM national metrology institutes maintain a low-cost rubidium clock as their national time standard

The SIM time scale

April 20, 2013
Michael A. Lombardi, J. Mauricio Lopez-Romero, Nelida Diaz-Munoz, E. de Carlos-Lopez
Time measurement is of great importance for science, technology and commerce. Among the seven base units of the International System (SI), the second can be realized with the smallest uncertainty, currently reaching parts in 1016. Keeping track of the

Replicating UTC(NIST) at Remote Sites

November 26, 2012
Michael A. Lombardi, Andrew N. Novick, J. Mauricio Lopez-Romero, Rodrigo Ramos
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is deploying disciplined oscillators that are referenced to the UTC(NIST) time scale through common-view observations of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. We present measurement results