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Search Publications by Patrick J. Abbott

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Displaying 1 - 24 of 24

Recommended practice for calibrating vacuum gauges of the ionization type

April 27, 2018
James A. Fedchak, Patrick J. Abbott, Jay H. Hendricks, Paul C. Arnold, Neil T. Peacock
This document represents a recommended practice for the calibration of ionization gauges using the comparison method. In this method, ionization gauges are compared to a working standard that has an SI traceable calibration. The ionization gauge is either

Milligram mass metrology using an electrostatic force balance

September 28, 2016
Gordon A. Shaw, Julian Stirling, John A. Kramar, Alexander D. Moses, Patrick J. Abbott, Richard L. Steiner, Andrew D. Koffman, Jon R. Pratt, Zeina J. Kubarych
Although mass is typically defined within the International System of Units (SI) at the Kilogram level, the pending redefinition of the SI provides an opportunity to realize mass at any scale using electrical metrology. We propose the use of an

Results from the Magnetic Suspension Mass Comparator for Vacuum-to-Air Mass Dissemination in Support of the Redefinition of the Kilogram

August 1, 2016
Corey A. Stambaugh, Eric C. Benck, Edward C. Mulhern, Patrick J. Abbott, Zeina J. Kubarych
Experiments to realize the new definition of the kilogram will be carried out in vacuum. NIST has developed a magnetic suspension mass comparator to disseminate the new definition to air. This paper details the current status of the system. This includes


September 4, 2015
Corey A. Stambaugh, Edward C. Mulhern, Eric C. Benck, Zeina J. Kubarych, Patrick J. Abbott
The redefined kilogram will be realized in vacuum and a method will be required to disseminate the standard to air. NIST has been developing a magnetic suspension system for this purpose. This paper discusses the progress to characterize and improve the

A constant from a mass, a mass from a constant

November 9, 2014
Jon R. Pratt, Stephan Schlamminger, David B. Newell, Leon S. Chao, Zeina J. Kubarych, Patrick J. Abbott, Yusi A. Cao, Frank C. Seifert, Darine El Haddad
NIST recently used a watt balance instrument known as NIST-3 to measure the Planck constant in terms of IPK with a relative uncertainty of approximately 45 parts in 10e9. Along the way to this new NIST value of h, the instrument was also employed to

Vacuum technology considerations for mass metrology

July 1, 2011
Patrick J. Abbott, Zeina J. Kubarych
Vacuum weighing of mass artifacts eliminates the necessity of air buoyancy correction and its contribution to the measurement uncertainty. Vacuum weighing is also an important process in the experiments currently underway for the redefinition of the SI

Safely mounting glass viewports to elastomer sealed vacuum flanges

June 17, 2010
Patrick J. Abbott, Brian R. Scace
Elastomer sealed vacuum flanges rely on specially sized elastomer O-rings and corresponding grooves to make an air-tight seal. Depending on the materials being sealed to one another, the O-ring/groove sealing mechanism may be designed for a specific

Linking Air and Vacuum Mass Measurement by Magnetic Levitation

May 12, 2009
Zeina J. Kubarych, Patrick J. Abbott, Edwin R. Williams, Ruimin Liu, Vincent J. Lee, Hung-Kung Liu
This paper describes a new approach to directly link air and vacuum mass measurements using magnetic levitation techniques. This procedure provides direct traceability to national standards, presently defined in air, without requiring the estimate of

Quantitative Measurement of Outgas Products From EUV Photoresists

March 14, 2008
Charles S. Tarrio, Bruce A. Benner Jr, Robert E. Vest, Steven E. Grantham, Shannon B. Hill, Thomas B. Lucatorto, Jay H. Hendricks, Patrick J. Abbott, Greg Denbeaux, Alin Antohe, Chimaobi Mbanaso, Kevin Orbek
The photon-stimulated emission of organic molecules from the photoresist during exposure is a serious problem for extreme- ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) because the adsorption of the outgassing products on the EUV optics can lead to carbonization and

Magnetic Levitation System for the Dissemination of a Non-Artifact Based Kilogram

November 27, 2007
Zeina J. Kubarych, Patrick J. Abbott, Edwin R. Williams, Ruimin Liu, Vincent J. Lee
We describe a new approach to directly link air and vacuum mass measurements. This approach uses magnetic levitation along with vacuum and balance technology to realize vacuum mass measurements. It provides direct traceability to the International

Reproducibility of the Accommodation Coefficient of the Spinning Rotor Gauge

October 1, 2007
Ren F. Chang, Patrick J. Abbott
Eight spinning rotor gauges were calibrated numerous times simultaneously with the primary midrange vacuum standard at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, over a period of fifteen months to assess the reproducibility of their accommodation

Anomalous Behavior of Teflon-Based Helium Permeation Flow Standards

June 1, 2007
Patrick J. Abbott, Justin H. Chow
Helium leak testing is a vital step in assuring product reliability for anything that must be packaged in a sealed container. Examples abound from blister packaging for pharmaceuticals to aluminum wheel rims for automobiles. In order to quantify detected

The Calibration of Vacuum Gauges

March 1, 2006
Patrick J. Abbott
Vacuum gauges are used to measure pressures below the local atmospheric pressure. The success of many processes relies on an accurate vacuum pressure measurement, making calibration of vacuum gauges essential. This paper discusses the issues related to

Commercial helium permeation leak standards: Their properties and reliability

February 12, 1996
Patrick J. Abbott, S A. Tison
Standard leaks or leak artifacts are used extensively in industrial and research environments, typically for the calibration of helium leak detectors. The most commonly used leak is the helium permeation type, which uses a glass, quartz, or polymer barrier