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Search Publications by

Jack A. Stone Jr. (Assoc)

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Displaying 1 - 25 of 64

Design of a cell-based refractometer with small end-effects

July 7, 2018
Patrick Egan, Jack A. Stone Jr.
In cell-based laser refractometers, interferometer pathlength uncertainty introduced by deformation and stress in the windows through which the beams pass can be the chief factor limiting measurement accuracy. The fractional contribution of pathlength

Recent Developments in Surface Science and Engineering, Thin Films, Nanoscience, Biomaterials, Plasma Science, and Vacuum Technology

May 31, 2018
Miran Mozetic, Alenka Vesel, Gregor Primc, J. Bauer, A. Eder, G. H. S. Schmid, David Ruzic, Zeeshan Ahmed, Daniel Barker, Kevin O. Douglass, Stephen Eckel, James A. Fedchak, Jay H. Hendricks, Nikolai Klimov, Jacob Edmond Ricker, Julia Scherschligt, Jack A. Stone Jr., Gregory F. Strouse, I. Capan, M Buljan, S. Milosevic, C Teichert, S R. Cohen, A G. Silva, M Lehocky, P Humpolicek, C Rodriguez, J Hernandez-Montelongo, E Punzon-Quijorna, D Mercier, M Manso-Silvan, G Ceccone, A Galtayries, K Stana-Kleinschek, I Petrov, J E. Greene, J Avila, C Y. Chen, B Caja, H Yi, A Boury, S Lorcy, M C. Asensio, T Gans, D O?Connell, F Reniers, A Vincze, M Anderle
Nanometer-sized structures, surfaces and sub-surface phenomena have played an enormous role in science and technological applications and represent a driving-force of current interdisciplinary science. Recent developments include the atomic-scale

Quantum for Pressure

January 5, 2018
Jay H. Hendricks, Patrick F. Egan, Jacob E. Ricker, Jack A. Stone Jr., Kevin O. Douglass, Gregory F. Strouse
A team of NIST scientists is working to fundamentally change the way that the unit of pressure is realized and disseminated, an effort that will lead to the elimination of mercury barometer pressure standards.

Perspectives for a new realization of the pascal by optical methods

October 24, 2017
Jay H. Hendricks, Karl Jousten, Jack A. Stone Jr., Patrick F. Egan, Tom Rubin, Christof Gaiser, Rene Schodel, James A. Fedchak, Jacob E. Ricker, Jens Fluegge, Stephen P. Eckel, Julia K. Scherschligt, Daniel S. Barker, Kevin O. Douglass, Gregory F. Strouse, Uwe Sterr, Waldimir Sabuga
Since the beginning of measurement of pressure in the 17th century, the unit of pressure has been defined by the relationship of force per unit area. The present state of optical technology now offers the possibility of using a thermodynamic definition

Cell-based refractometer for pascal realization

July 24, 2017
Patrick F. Egan, Jack A. Stone Jr., Jacob E. Ricker, Jay H. Hendricks, Gregory F. Strouse
We describe a method for determining density of helium via measurements of optical refractivity. In combination with the equation of state, this allows realization of the pascal. Our apparatus is based on the integration of a gas triple-cell into a quasi

Stuck in a moment: A view from the MIRE

April 20, 2017
Patrick Egan, Jack A. Stone Jr., Jacob Edmond Ricker, Jay H. Hendricks
The next-generation pressure standards will be realized via gas density and the equation of state. One way to access the density is through a measurement of gas refractivity, underpinned by the theoretical calculations that predict the relationship between

Laser Refractometer as a Transfer Standard of the Pascal

July 9, 2016
Patrick Egan, Jack A. Stone Jr., Jacob Edmond Ricker, Jay H. Hendricks
We have developed a new low pressure sensor which is based on the measurement of (nitrogen) gas refractivity inside a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. We compare pressure determinations via this laser refractometer to that of well-established ultrasonic manometers


September 3, 2015
Jay H. Hendricks, Jacob E. Ricker, Jack A. Stone Jr., Patrick F. Egan, Gregory E. Scace, Gregory F. Strouse, Douglas A. Olson, Donavon Gerty
The future of pressure and vacuum measurement will rely on lasers and Fabry-Perot optical cavities, and will be based on fundamental physics of light interacting with a gas. Light interacts at the quantum level with matter such that light travels at a

Performance of a dual Fabry-Perot cavity refractometer

August 18, 2015
Patrick F. Egan, Jack A. Stone Jr., Jay H. Hendricks, Jacob E. Ricker, Gregory E. Scace, Gregory F. Strouse
We have built and characterized a refractometer that utilizes two Fabry-Perot cavities formed on a dimensionally stable spacer. In the typical mode of operation, one cavity is held at vacuum and the other cavity is filled with nitrogen gas. The

Clearing the fog for best in the world air-wavelength

July 1, 2015
Patrick F. Egan, Jack A. Stone Jr.
Laser interferometry, the basis for modern length metrology, achieves very high accuracies as a consequence of the stable, well-known frequencies of laser sources. However, length measurements in air also require corrections based on precise knowledge of


October 15, 2014
Jack A. Stone Jr.
At the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), we have a capability to calibrate and test laser interferometer systems used to measure displacements. Recently our calibration protocol has been modified so as to bring it into accord with a

Metrology for comparison of displacements at the picometer level

July 31, 2014
Jack A. Stone Jr., Patrick F. Egan, Jay H. Hendricks, Gregory F. Strouse, Douglas A. Olson, Jacob E. Ricker, Gregory E. Scace, Donavon Gerty
An apparatus capable of comparing displacements with picometer accuracy is currently being designed at NIST. In principle, we wish to compare one displacement in vacuum to a second, equal displacement in gas, in order to determine gas refractive index. If

Picometer Metrology for Precise Measurement of Refractive Index, Pressure, and Temperature

December 18, 2013
Jack A. Stone Jr., Patrick F. Egan, Donavon Gerty, Jay H. Hendricks, Douglas A. Olson, Jacob E. Ricker, Gregory E. Scace, Gregory F. Strouse
Fabry-Perot interferometers can be used for very precise measurement of the refractive index of gasses. This can enable increased accuracy of interferometer-based length measurement. In addition, because the refractive index of a gas depends on its

Picometer metrology for precise measurement of refractive index, pressure, and temperature

July 14, 2013
Jack A. Stone Jr., Patrick F. Egan, Jay H. Hendricks, Gregory F. Strouse, Douglas A. Olson, Jacob E. Ricker, Gregory E. Scace
For several years we have been studying the use of Fabry-Perot interferometers for precise measurement of the refractive index of gasses, where the primary motivation has been to improve interferometer-based length measurement. Because the refractive index

Weak value thermostat with 0.2 mK precision

December 1, 2012
Patrick F. Egan, Jack A. Stone Jr.
A new laser-based thermostat sensitive to 0.2 mK at room temperature is reported. The method utilizes a fluid-filled prism and interferometric weak value amplification to sense nanoradian deviations of a laser beam: due to the high thermooptic coefficient

Absolute refractometry of dry gas to +-3 parts in 10 9

June 20, 2011
Patrick F. Egan, Jack A. Stone Jr.
We present a method of measuring the refractive index of dry gases absolutely at 632.8 nm wavelength using a Fabry-Perot cavity with an expanded uncertainty of -9 (coverage factor k = 2. The main contribution to this uncertainty is how well vacuum-to

Geometric effects when measuring small holes with micro contact probes.

March 1, 2011
Jack A. Stone Jr., Balasubramanian Muralikrishnan, Chittaranjan Sahay
A coordinate measuring machine with a suitably small probe can be used to measure micro-features such as the diameter and form of small holes (often about 100 micrometers in diameter). When measuring small holes, the clearance between the probe tip and the

An Optical Frequency Comb Tied to GPS for Laser Frequency/Wavelength Calibration

November 1, 2010
Jack A. Stone Jr., Patrick F. Egan
Optical frequency combs can be employed over a broad spectral range to calibrate laser frequency or vacuum wavelength. This article describes procedures and techniques utilized in the Precision Engineering Division of NIST (National Institute of Standards

Micro-feature dimensional and form measurements with the NIST fiber probe on a CMM

July 30, 2010
Balasubramanian Muralikrishnan, Jack A. Stone Jr., John R. Stoup, Chittaranjan Sahay
The NIST fiber probe is a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) probing system intended for diameter and form measurement of micro features and small holes. This Moore M48 CMM at NIST can measure holes down to 500 um diameter with the Movamatic probe; the

Temperature stabilization system with millikelvin gradients for refractometry

July 25, 2010
Patrick F. Egan, Jack A. Stone Jr.
Refractometry of air is a central problem for interferometer-based dimensional measurements. Refractometry at the 10^{-9} level is only valid if air temperature gradients are controlled at the millikelvin level. Very precise tests of second-generation NIST

Uncalibrated Helium-Neon Lasers in Length Metrology

September 1, 2009
Jack A. Stone Jr.
The vacuum wavelength of a gas laser cannot vary from its central value by more than a few parts in 10^6. Consequently, an uncertainty of this magnitude can be assigned for the wavelength of the laser even if it has not been calibrated and even if the