Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Sample Concentration and Processing



Lane C. Sander


Sample Concentration and Processing Sample concentration is a common step in sample preparation prior to analysis that is performed to increase method sensitivity or to exchange solvent environment. Sample concentration can be thought of as a separation technique, since the more volatile component of a mixture is preferentially removed from less volatile components. In most, but not all cases, the more volatile components are not recovered. This presentation will provide an overview of different approaches used to concentrate samples, with brief demonstrations of the instruments used, including a needle evaporator, automated evaporator, rotary evaporator, and SpeedVac concentrator. An example will also be included of an instrument that is primarily intended for sample processing reactions (HotBlock digestor).
Journal of Research (NIST JRES) -


concentration, sample processing, quantitation, evaporation, solvent exchange, method development


Sander, L. (2017), Sample Concentration and Processing, Journal of Research (NIST JRES), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed May 18, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created January 12, 2017, Updated January 27, 2020