We review the field of STM and AFM as applied to industrial problems, and we classify the applications into four classes: research with potential benefit to industry, research performed by industry, applications off-line in manufacturing, and applications on-line in manufacturing. We also discuss the role of metrology for certain applications and briefly review many other types of SPMs besides STM and AFM. We conclude by emphasizing ultra-precision positioning, nanofabrication, and biomedical applications as important future directions in the field.
Citation: Annals CIRP
Pub Type: Journals
atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning probe microscopy (SPM), Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)