Fire Fighting Tactics Under Wind Driven Fire Conditions: 7-Story Building Experiments.

Published: April 01, 2009

Author(s)

Daniel M. Madrzykowski, Stephen Kerber

Abstract

A series of 14 experiments was conducted in 7-story building to evaluate the ability of positive pressure ventilation fans, wind control devices and floor below nozzles to mitigate the hazards of a wind driven fire in a structure. Each experiment started with an apartment fire that was intensified by a natural or mechanical wind. Each of the tools was evaluated individually as well and in conjunction with each other to assess the benefit to fire fighters operating, as well as potential occupants in the structure. The results of the experiments provide a baseline for the thermal hazard associated with a wind driven fire and the impact of pressure, ventilation and flow paths within a structure. Wind created conditions that rapidly caused conditions in the structure to deteriorate by forcing fire gases through the apartment of origin and into the public corridor and stairwell. These conditions would be untenable for advancing fire fighters. Each of the tools was able to reduce the thermal hazard created by the wind driven fire and multiple tools used in conjunction were very effective at improving conditions for fire fighter operations and occupant egress. These experiments validate the potential benefit of each of these tools and their ability to enhance the capabilities and safety of the fire service.
Citation: Technical Note (NIST TN) - 1629
Report Number:
1629
NIST Pub Series: Technical Note (NIST TN)
Pub Type: NIST Pubs

Download Paper

Keywords

fire fighting tactics, fire suppression, full scale fire experiments, high rise buildings, hose streams, structure fire, wind driven fire, wind control
Created April 01, 2009, Updated February 19, 2017