Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Embracing Uncertainty: Modeling Uncertainty in EPMA - Part II



Nicholas Ritchie


This, the second in a series of articles present a new framework for considering the computation of uncertainty in electron excited X-ray microanalysis measurements, will discuss matrix correction. The framework presented in the first article will be applied to the matrix correction model called ''Pouchou and Pichoir's Simplified Model'' or simply ''XPP''. This uncertainty calculation will consider the influence of beam energy, take-off angle, mass- absorption coefficient, surface roughness and other parameters. Since uncertainty calculations and measurement optimization are so intimately related, it also provides a starting point for optimizing accuracy through choice of measurement design.
Microscopy and Microanalysis


matrix correction, uncertainty, microanalysis, electron probe microanalysis, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometry


Ritchie, N. (2001), Embracing Uncertainty: Modeling Uncertainty in EPMA - Part II, Microscopy and Microanalysis, [online], (Accessed June 18, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created January 1, 2001, Updated August 26, 2022