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Comparison of the Properties of Cellulose Nanocrystals and Cellulose Nanofibrils Isolated From Bacteria, Tunicate, and Wood Processed Using Acid, Enzymatic, Mechanical, and Oxidative Methods

Published

Author(s)

Iulia A. Sacui, Jeffrey W. Gilman, Ryan C. Nieuwendaal, Stephan J. Stranick, Henryk Szmacinski, Mehdi Jorfi, Christopher Weder, Johan Foster, Richard Olsson, Daniel Burnett

Abstract

This work describes the study and characterization of native cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrils (CNCs, CNFs), whose crystallinity, morphology, aspect ratio, and surface chemistry depend on the raw material source and hydrolysis conditions. Measurement of the fundamental properties of seven different CNCs/CNFs, from tunicates (Styela clava: H2SO4 processed), bacteria (Acetobacter xylinum: HCl processed and H2SO4 processed) and wood (enzymatically processed, mechanically refined, H2SO4 processed, and TEMPO processed) was accomplished using a variety of metrology methods. The CNC/CNF morphology, determined using AFM and TEM, shows a direct link with the crystalline fraction, as determined using solid state 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. CNCs which are rod-like in appearance have a higher crystallinity than CNFs which are ribbon-like in appearance. In all cases, a trace amount of naturally occurring fluorescent compounds were observed after hydrolysis. Confocal, Raman and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) were used to confirm that the fluorescent species were unique for each cellulose source. Fluorescence measurements also revealed that they may be useful for rigorously monitoring purity during CNCs and CNFs processing. This study reveals the unique, broad, tunable, multi-dimensional material space in which CNCs and CNFs exist.
Citation
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume
6
Issue
9

Citation

Sacui, I. , Gilman, J. , Nieuwendaal, R. , Stranick, S. , Szmacinski, H. , Jorfi, M. , Weder, C. , Foster, J. , Olsson, R. and Burnett, D. (2014), Comparison of the Properties of Cellulose Nanocrystals and Cellulose Nanofibrils Isolated From Bacteria, Tunicate, and Wood Processed Using Acid, Enzymatic, Mechanical, and Oxidative Methods, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, [online], https://doi.org/10.1021/am500359f (Accessed April 13, 2024)
Created April 18, 2014, Updated November 10, 2018