The scanning microwave microscope (SMM) is used for calibrated capacitance spectroscopy and spatially resolved dopant profiling measurements. It consists of an atomic force microscope (AFM) combined with a vector network analyzer operating between 1-20 GHz. On silicon semiconductor calibration samples with doping concentrations ranging from 1014 to 1020 atoms/cm3, calibrated capacitance-voltage curves as well as derivative dC/dV curves were acquired. The change of the capacitance and the dC/dV signal is directly related to the dopant concentration allowing for quantitative dopant profiling. The method was tested on various samples with known dopant concentration and the relative error of dopant profiling determined to 20% while the absolute accuracy is within an order of magnitude. Using a modeling approach the dopant profiling calibration curves were analyzed with respect to varying tip diameter and oxide thickness allowing for improvements of the calibration accuracy. Bipolar samples were investigated and nano-scale defect structures and p-n junction interfaces imaged showing potential applications for the study of semiconductor device performance and failure analysis.
Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
Pub Type: Journals