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Assessment of Resilience in Codes, Standards, Regulations, and Best Practices for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems



Therese P. McAllister, Richard Walker, Amy Baker


A high-level review was conducted of design criteria in the United States for major components of the built environment for selected design and construction codes, reference standards, and best practices. The intent of the review is to gauge the expected performance of current building and infrastructure design from a community resilience perspective for natural hazard events. Design criteria that support community resilience were evaluated, including design hazard characterization, expected performance, recovery of function, interdependency issues, and emerging methods. The impact of changing environmental conditions on infrastructure design and performance was also examined, and areas needing improvement are identified. The review focused on design criteria related to flood, wind, and seismic hazards. Likewise, the systems of the built environment reviewed include buildings, water and wastewater systems, electrical power systems, and transportation systems. Although community resilience depends on the performance of existing buildings and infrastructure, this report focuses on design criteria for new construction to inform future codes, standards, regulations, and best practices. Technical topics to improve the performance and recovery of the built environment for a range of hazard types and to advance the methods and tools available to support resilient systems and communities for stakeholders are identified. The target audience of this report includes industry associations, design professionals, community building code officials, community and city planners, and researchers.
Technical Note (NIST TN) - 2209
Report Number


McAllister, T. , Walker, R. and Baker, A. (2022), Assessment of Resilience in Codes, Standards, Regulations, and Best Practices for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems, Technical Note (NIST TN), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed July 15, 2024)


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Created April 22, 2022, Updated November 29, 2022