Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Optical Networking of Superconducting Quantum Nodes with Transduction Devices


A collaborative team has worked since 2019 to demonstrate the world’s first “Quantum Internet” to establish the science and technology of networks for superconducting quantum computers.


Optical Two-Mode Squeezed State Generation

Expected to be operational in 2023, the team is designing and constructing an optical testbed to create remote microwave entanglement for the networking of superconducting quantum computers. 

In this continuous variable approach, the entanglement distribution of optically generated two-mode squeezed states is being used as the quantum resource.  At the network nodes, the optical states are being converted to the microwave domain with membrane-coupled resonator devices developed at NIST/JILA with the world’s best available transduction performance.

Computers based on superconducting qubits have recently demonstrated quantum supremacy and represent the most promising technology for future large-scale systems.  Practical limits will soon require that optical networks be used to scale quantum computers by creating and maintaining remote microwave entanglement. Fundamental questions remain to be answered regarding what such a quantum network will look like and how it will operate. 


The Quantum Networking testbed will:

•Test novel microwave-optical transducers being developed at NIST

•Connect and operate transducers as nodes of a network

•Develop networking protocols for continuous variables and single photons

•Establish practical limits for the measurement of fragile quantum states

•Support disparate networking node technologies

•The results of this facility will directly impact,

•US leadership in quantum 2.0 technologies:

•High-performance computing

•Secure communications

•Quantum metrology and sensors

•Quantum photonic sources and detectors

•Future quantum network standards

•US global competitiveness

Quantum - CTL
Quantum - 2


Created February 16, 2021, Updated March 2, 2021