Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

NIST Guide to the SI, Appendix D: Bibliography

  1. Le Système International d'Unités (SI), The International System of Units (SI), 8th Edition (Bur. Intl. Poids et Mesures, Sèvres, France, 2006).

    Note: This publication, which is commonly called the BIPM SI Brochure, consists of the official French text followed by an English translation.

  2. The International System of Units (SI), Ed. by B. N. Taylor and Ambler Thompson, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 330, 2008 Edition (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, March 2008). It is available in electronic form at no charge at

    Note: This publication is the United States edition of the English translation in Ref. [1].

  3. United States Government Printing Office Style Manual (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000).

  4. ISO 31-0 is cited in the text in the form [4: ISO 31-0]. Currently ISO 31 is being revised jointly by ISO TC12 and IEC TC25. The revised joint standards ISO/IEC 80000-1—ISO/IEC 80000-15 will supersede ISO 31-0:1992—ISO 31-13. The completed revised joint standards published to date are included in this list, though the part numbers maybe different from the earlier designation.

    Quantities and units - Part 0: General principles, ISO 31-0:1992.

    Quantities and units - Part 2: Periodic and related phenomena, ISO 31-2:1992.

    Quantities and units - Part 3: Space and time, ISO 80000-3 (2006).

    Quantities and units - Part 4: Mechanics, ISO 80000-4 (2006).

    Quantities and units - Part 4: Heat, ISO 31-4:1992.

    Quantities and units - Part 5: Electricity and magnetism, ISO 31-5:1992.

    Quantities and units - Part 6: Light and related electromagnetic radiations, ISO 31-6:1992.

    Quantities and units - Part 7: Acoustics, ISO 31-7:1992.

    Quantities and units - Part 8: Physical chemistry and molecular physics, ISO 31-8:1992.

    Quantities and units - Part 9: Atomic and nuclear physics, ISO 31-9:1992.

    Quantities and units - Part 10: Nuclear reactions and ionizing radiations, ISO 31-10:1992.

    Quantities and units - Part 11: Mathematical signs and symbols for use in physical sciences and technology, ISO 31-11:1992.

    Quantities and units - Part 12: Characteristic numbers, ISO 31-12:1992.

    Quantities and units - Part 13: Solid state physics, ISO 31-13:1992.

    Note: ISO 31-0:1992 - ISO 31-13:1992 and ISO 1000:1992 are reprinted in the ISO Standards Handbook Quantities and units (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993).

  5. The following four standards, which are cited in the text in the form [IEC 60027-X], are published by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), Geneva, Switzerland.

    Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology, Part 1: General, IEC 27-1 (1991).

    Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology, Part 2: Telecommunications and electronics, IEC 60027-2 (2005).

    Note: As pointed out in Sec. 4.3, the SI prefixes refer strictly to powers of 10. They should not be used to indicate powers of 2 (for example, one kilobit represents 1000 bits and not 1024 bits). The IEC has adopted prefixes for binary powers in the above standard. The names and symbols for the prefixes corresponding to 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, and 260 are, respectively: kibi, Ki; mebi, Mi; gibi, Gi; tebi, Ti; pebi, Pi; and exbi, Ei. Thus, for example, one kibibyte would be written: 1 KiB = 210 B = 1024 B, where B denotes a byte. Although these prefixes are not part of the SI, they should be used in the field of information technology to avoid the incorrect usage of the SI prefixes.

    Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology, Part 3: Logarithmic and related quantities and their units, IEC 60027-3 (2003).

    Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology, Part 4: Rotating electrical machines, IEC 60027-4 (2006).

  6. SI 10-2002 IEEE/ASTM Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric System. A joint ASTM-IEEE effort to develop a single ANSI standard.


    1. A number of similar standards for metric practice are published by technical organizations. They include:

    Rules for SAE Use of SI (Metric) Units, TSB003 MAY 1999 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, May 1999).

    2. The Canadian Standards Association, 5060 Spectrum Way, Suite 100, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, L4W 5N6, publishes CAN/CSA-Z234.1-00 (R2006), Canadian Metric Practice Guide, a Canadian National Standard.

    3. The application of the SI to physical chemistry is discussed in Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry, Third Edition (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, RSC Publications, Cambridge, 2007.

  7. Federal Register, Vol. 24, No. 128, p. 5348, July 1, 1959.

  8. Federal Register, Vol. 53, No. 138, p. 27213, July 19, 1988.

  9. Federal Register, Vol. 42, No. 57, p. 8847, March 24, 1977.

  10. Federal Register, Vol. 54, No. 113, p. 25318, June 14, 1989.

  11. Federal Register, Vol. 40, No. 23, p. 5954, February 3, 1975.

  12. Federal Register, Vol. 33, No. 146, p. 10755, July 27, 1968.

  13. Federal Register, Vol. 55, No. 245, p. 52242, December 20, 1990.

  14. Federal Register, Vol. 56, No. 1, p. 160, January 2, 1991.

  15. Federal Register, Vol. 56, No. 145, p. 35801, July 29, 1991.

  16. Federal Register, Vol. 63, No. 144, p. 40334, July 28, 1998.

  17. Preferred Metric Units for General Use by the Federal Government, Federal Standard 376B (General Services Administration, Washington, DC, 1993).

  18. Quantities and Units in Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, ICRU Report 51, 1993 (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Bethesda, MD, 20814).

  19. Values for the 2006 adjustment of the fundamental physical constants can be found at the NIST website (

    Note: For a detailed description of the previous 2002 adjustment of the values for the constants see P. J. Mohr and B. N. Taylor, Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 77, No. 1, pp. 1-107, 2005.

  20. The term combined standard uncertainty used in the footnotes to Table 7 of this Guide, and the related terms expanded uncertainty and relative expanded uncertainty used in some of the examples of Sec. 7.10.3, are discussed in ISO, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993); and in B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 1297, 1994 Edition (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, September 1994).

Created January 28, 2016, Updated February 17, 2022