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Gheorghe Stan (Fed)


Research Interests

  • Develop and customize instrumentation for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to enable advanced and reliable nanoscale property characterization, with direct applications in nanoelectronics, micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, thin film coatings, additive manufacturing, and biotechnology.
  • Use AFM-based characterization techniques to investigate nanoscale structure-property relationship in fabricated structures and devices.
  • Develop Contact Resonance AFM (CR-AFM) for nanoscale elastic modulus measurements. Extend CR-AFM to Intermittent Contact Resonance AFM (ICR-AFM) for subsurface and 3D mechanical property measurements.
  • Established collaborative work between NIST, academia, industry, and instrument vendors to promote the development of nanoscale characterization techniques for new materials and devices.


CR-AFM applications
Left: CR-AFM measurements on bilayer structures. Center: Probing the elastic modulus of AlN nanotubes by CR-AFM. Right: Combined mechanical (Intermittent Contact Resonance AFM) and chemical (AFM Infrared) measurements on high-aspect ratio organosilicate patterns for Cu/low-k dielectric interconnects.
Credit: Gheorghe Stan/NIST


Ongoing Projects



  • US Patent # 9,535,085 "Intermittent Contact Resonance Atomic Force Microscopy and Process for Intermittent Contact Resonance Atomic Force Microscopy," Inventors: Stan & Gates (2017)



Google Scholar Citations


2009 MSEL Distinguished Associate Award

2021 DOC Bronze Medal “For the invention, development, and industrial application of Intermittent Contact Resonance Atomic Force Microscopy”

Selected Publications

Doping of MoTe2 via surface charge-transfer in ambient air

Gheorghe Stan, Cristian Ciobanu, Sri Ranga Jai Likith, Asha Rani, Sergiy Krylyuk, Albert Davydov
Doping is a key process that facilitates the use of semiconductors for electronic and optoelectronic devices, by which the concentration and type of majority


Multi-scale alignment to buried atom-scale devices using Kelvin probe force microscopy

Pradeep Namboodiri, Jonathan Wyrick, Gheorghe Stan, Xiqiao Wang, Fan Fei, Ranjit Kashid, Scott Schmucker, Richard Kasica, Bryan Barnes, Michael Stewart, Richard M. Silver
Fabrication of quantum devices by atomic scale patterning with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) has led to the development of single/few atom transistors
Created July 30, 2019, Updated May 5, 2023