Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Landmarks in the History of Natural Catastrophe Modeling


Title: Landmarks in the  History of Natural  Catastrophe Modeling: An exhibit from Johns Hopkins University and the NIST Museum; Quote: “In catastrophe modeling, the length of the list of unknowns makes one very humble… but decisions must still be made, if only on order of magnitude estimates.” — Don G. Friedman; Graphics of the Don G. Friedman calculating risk formula

Historical data is a useful but only partial tool in forecasting and preventing future natural catastrophes. This exhibit, originally created by Dr. Gonzalo Pita and the Sheridan Libraries at Johns Hopkins University, and expanded upon by the NIST Museum, highlights landmark publications defining milestones and progress in the field of natural catastrophe modeling. Included in this expanded exhibit is NIST’s role in natural disaster studies.


Example of how to reference this exhibit:
Gonzalo Pita, the Sheridan Libraries, and the NIST Museum. 2020. Landmarks in the History of Natural Catastrophe Modeling: An exhibit from Johns Hopkins University and the NIST Museum. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Online.…

Citation Format:
Author. Year. Exhibit Name. Place published: Publisher. Online. URL.


Created July 8, 2020, Updated August 25, 2020