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Ballot On Demand (BoD) Use Case

READ-ONLY SITE MATERIALS: Historical voting TWiki site (2015-2020) ARCHIVED from

Security of Ballot-on-Demand image 01

The purpose of ballot on demand (BoD) technology is to create an appropriate ballot for a voter at the time when they request it. The most typical scenario for this case is blank-ballot creation. This is typically encountered as an offline capability to create, for example, blank paper ballots via ballot printing during in-person voting at a polling place. Blank-ballot creation may take place at locations other the polling place such as when a voter prints their own paper ballot during absentee voting at home. Alternatively, BoD may be used after a voter selects their choices in order to create a voted ballot. This may often be seen in cases where ballot marking and ballot creation functions are co-located, such as in modern ballot marking devices which enable voters to mark and subsequently printvoted paper ballots. The voted ballot creation scenario may also have alternative contexts, such as an equivalent ballot creation scenario for absentee voters marking and printing paper ballots using their personal device(s). In addition to the ability to create (generate) paper/printed ballots in these and related contexts, one may need to create blank or voted ballots in one or more alternative ballot representations, be they in the form of QRCodes, text-based ballot and choice listings, or others. In this role, a BoD device may support the ability to create multiple ballot representations and/or the ability to convert among multiple allowed ballot representations.

Voting Image:  Ballot on Demand Use Case Image 02

Use Case Scenarios

WHAT | Create an appropriate ballot for a voter at the same time when they request it

HOW | Scenarios

  1. Blank ballot creation

    1. Typical-offline: ballot printing, paper ballots, at polling place

    2. Absentee: ballot printing, paper ballots, at home

    3. Alternative-ballot-representations, paper: ballot printing QR Codes

    4. Alternative-ballot media: electronic ballot generation

  2. Voted ballot creation

    1. Typical-offline: ballot creation and marking, paper ballots, at polling place

    2. Absentee: ballot creation and marking, paper ballots, at home

    3. Alternative-ballot-representations, paper: ballot printing QR Codes

  3. Multiple equivalent ballot representations: e.g., QRCoded ballot and human-readable ballot content (list of choices)

Request for Feedback

For each use case scenario, please address these questions:

  1. Is the use case scenario in scope for the Next Generation VVSG for development of requirements that will undergo testing and certification? or
  2. Is the use case scenario in scope to develop as guidelines for election officials and voting system manufacturers? or
  3. Is the use case scenario not in scope for this work?
  4. If different parts of the use case scenario fall in 1., 2., and/or 3. Please identify as such.
  5. Is anything missing?

Voting TWiki Archive (2015-2020): read-only, archived wiki site, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)


This page, and related pages, represent archived materials (pages, documents, links, and content) that were produced and/or provided by members of public working groups engaged in collaborative activities to support the development of the Voluntary Voting System Guidelines (VVSG) 2.0. These TWiki activities began in 2015 and continued until early 2020. During that time period, this content was hosted on a Voting TWiki site. That TWiki site was decommissioned in 2020 due to technology migration needs. The TWiki activities that generated this content ceased to operate actively through the TWiki at the time the draft VVSG 2.0 was released, in February of 2020. The historical pages and documents produced there have been archived now in read-only, static form.

  • The archived materials of this TWiki (including pages, documents, links, content) are provided for historical purposes only.
  • They are not actively maintained.
  • They are provided "as is" as a public service.
  • They represent the "work in progress" efforts of a community of volunteer members of public working groups collaborating from late 2015 to February of 2020.
  • These archived materials do not necessarily represent official or peer-reviewed NIST documents nor do they necessarily represent official views or statements of NIST.
  • Unless otherwise stated these materials should be treated as historical, pre-decisional, artifacts of public working group activities only.
  • NIST does not warrant or make any representations regarding the correctness, accuracy, reliability or usefulness of the archived materials.


This wiki was a collaborative website. NIST does not necessarily endorse the views expressed, or concur with the facts presented on these archived TWiki materials. Further, NIST does not endorse any commercial products that may be mentioned in these materials. Archived material on this TWiki site is made available to interested parties for informational and research purposes. Materials were contributed by Participants with the understanding that all contributed material would be publicly available.  Contributions were made by Participants with the understanding that that no copyright or patent right shall be deemed to have been waived by such contribution or disclosure. Any data or information provided is for illustrative purposes only, and does not imply a validation of results by NIST. By selecting external links, users of these materials will be leaving NIST webspace. Links to other websites were provided because they may have information that would be of interest to readers of this TWiki. No inferences should be drawn on account of other sites being referenced, or not referenced, from this page or these materials. There may be other websites or references that are more appropriate for a particular reader's purpose.


Created August 28, 2020, Updated February 5, 2021