NIST invites Smart Grid testbed researchers and operators to participate in a discussion of collaboration across testbeds. Three one-day workshops, free and open to the public, will each consist of a brief presentation on the NIST Smart Grid Testbed project, followed by representatives of other facilities presenting information and capabilities of their testbeds, and discussions around opportunities for progress through collaboration. Several events are scheduled at different locations around the country:
These one-day workshops will consist of a brief presentation on the NIST Smart Grid Testbed project, followed by other facilities' representatives presenting on their testbeds, and then subsequent discussions.
These workshops will explore existing and future smart grid testbed capabilities. They also will examine ways to develop a collaborative environment across testbeds, through sharing information, leveraging resources, scaling experiments, and other forms of cooperation. Workshops are free and open to the public. For more information contact boynton [at] nist.gov (Paul Boynton).
NIST and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate invite smart city stakeholders to the Smart and Secure Cities and Communities Challenge Expo at the Walter E Washington Convention Center in Washington DC, July 10-12, 2019. The Expo will include representatives from other Federal agencies, industry, academia, cities and communities around the world. Registration is free, required for attendance, and instructions are online. A preliminary agenda is also online and will be updated.
The expo will showcase:
Please visit the 2019 GCTC/SC3 Expo website or contact sokwoo.rhee [at] nist.gov (Sokwoo Rhee) for more information.
In March 2019, NIST released its Special Publication 1900-202, Cyber-Physical Systems and Internet of Things, providing a unified perspective that helps to clarify their relationship and identifies a common emphasis on hybrid systems of interacting digital, analog, physical and human components, in systems engineered for function through integrated physics and logic. The document describes the origins of the terms CPS and IoT, and analyzes the range of definitions over time.
The publication explains that effectively designing, building, and assuring CPS/IoT systems requires consideration of the system’s functional context, including how the system is used and for what purpose or outcome. CPS and IOT commonality is illustrated with the graphic to the right, with logical realms (top half of circle), including information processes enabled by computer and information sciences and engineering, and physical realms (lower half of circle), with engineered systems and energy processes. Transducers – sensors and actuators – tightly integrate both realms. Additionally, humans interact with CPS and IoT both as physical and logical entities, while providing transduction through thought and action.
The benefits of a common perspective on CPS and IoT include:
In November 2018, the International Electrotechnical Commission approved IEC 62746-10-1:2018, a standard for automated communications between utilities, and commercial and residential facilities, which consume about 73 percent of all electricity, according to the Department of Energy's Electric Power Monthly, December 2018. Termed, "Open Automated Demand Response," or OpenADR, this communication allows energy providers to signal when electricity is high in demand – and cost – giving customers the opportunity to adjust their use. This helps balance electricity generation and demand, enabling savings at both ends. OpenADR is also facilitating grid integration of rapidly increasing distributed energy resources, like wind and solar generation.
Over a seven-year period, NIST staff leadership aided the IEC's establishment of the OpenADR standard. NIST's David Holmberg headed Working Group 2, Power Demand Response, in the IEC's Project Committee 118 – the IEC's first project committee – which developed the standard. NIST's Steven Bushby, headed the US technical advisory group to PC 118, and served as head of the US delegation throughout the process.
In February 2019, NIST released its publication, NIST Smart Grid Interoperability Test Tools. The toolset can generate test signals and capture, analyze and visualize data from multiple smart grid intelligent electronic devices. The tools' capabilities include:
NIST installed the hardware and software for these tools in a portable harness to support interoperability testing in the field and in its testbed. The toolset is intended to improve test methodologies, as well as standards. This development is in keeping with NIST's roles of advancing metrology and aiding development of test methodologies that objectively assess smart grid device performance. NIST deployed the toolset during its participation in the Utility Communication Architecture International User Group Interoperability Test Event in New Orleans, LA, October 14-19, 2017.
NIST's A Calibration of Timing Accuracy in the NIST Cyber-Physical Systems Testbed, published December 2018, shows that timing differences can be measured, accurately predicted, and offset in CPS.
Whether it's a smart grid or a smart building, all cyber-physical systems depend on accurate timing. Timing enables sensor fusion, proper sequencing of events, meaningful measurements, and more. NIST's Timing Challenges for the Smart Grid, January 2017, assessed the difficulties. Cyber-physical systems must synchronize their operations with Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) – especially challenging for widely distributed CPS and those comprised of systems with different owners. Such CPS must predict UTC across the enterprise, which can result in uncertainties in operations and measurements. NIST has developed a methodology to measure timing uncertainty in its CPS testbed. Researchers measured timing signals from NIST UTC in Boulder, CO, to commercially available GPS receivers, down to device timing performance at NIST, Gaithersburg, MD; this included measuring timestamping latency and variation. NIST is reporting the following results:
The December 2018 publication details the methodology and findings of this research.