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Understanding Early Failure Behavior In 3D-Interconnects: Empirical Modeling of Broadband Signal Losses In TSV-Enabled Interconnects

Published

Author(s)

Yaw S. Obeng, Kevin J. Coakley, Pavel Kabos, Stephane Moreau

Abstract

We develop an empirical model for measured frequency-dependent insertion loss (|S21|). The model parameters are determined with a stochastic optimization implementation of the Leven-berg-Marquard method. We compare measured |S21| on TSV-interconnects from two different fabs, as a function of the extent of thermal annealing. The frequency-dependent changes in the electrical characteristics of the interconnects are attributed to silanol (Si-OH) and other dangling bonds polarizations at the Si-SiO interface between the silicon host and the lateral silicon oxide that isolates the co-axial metal core from the silicon host. The changes in the polarizations are traceable to changes in the chemistry of the isolation dielectric during thermal annealing. The data also suggest that the evolution of the chemical defects inherent in the "as-manufactured" products may be responsible for some of the signal integrity degradation is-sues and other early reliability failures observed in TSV enabled 3D devices.
Citation
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Volume
69
Issue
11

Keywords

insertion loss, 3D-interconnects, TSV, thermal cycling, dielectric polarization, chemical defects, Empirical Modeling, Stochastic Optimization

Citation

Obeng, Y. , Coakley, K. , Kabos, P. and Moreau, S. (2022), Understanding Early Failure Behavior In 3D-Interconnects: Empirical Modeling of Broadband Signal Losses In TSV-Enabled Interconnects, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, [online], https://doi.org/10.1109/TED.2022.3204936, https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=933639 (Accessed February 8, 2023)
Created November 1, 2022, Updated November 29, 2022