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UE-to-Network Relay Model B Discovery in ProSe-Enabled LTE Networks



Alexandre C. Moreaux, Samantha Gamboa Quintiliani, David W. Griffith, Richard A. Rouil


In this paper, we expand previous analytical models to offer a more complete representation of Model B ProSe direct discovery. Using these models, we can obtain performance metrics such as the average time a given Remote User Equipment (UE) takes to discover a Relay UE, and we can examine the sensitivity of the relay performance to various input parameters such as the number of Remote UEs, the number of Relay UEs, and the Discovery message transmission rate. We use ns- 3 system level simulations to validate our analytical model and determine the optimal strategy for UEs to use in various deployment scenarios.
Technical Note (NIST TN) - 2149
Report Number


LTE, D2D, ProSe, UE-to-Network Relay, Discovery, Model B, Markov Chain, Network Modeling


Moreaux, A. , Gamboa Quintiliani, S. , Griffith, D. and Rouil, R. (2021), UE-to-Network Relay Model B Discovery in ProSe-Enabled LTE Networks, Technical Note (NIST TN), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed June 16, 2024)


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Created April 6, 2021, Updated October 12, 2021